Utilitarianism

The Magus
The Magus
The Magus In this paper I want to show the importance of the distinction between Deontological theories and Teleological theories. First, let me define the basic types of deontological theories: Act-deontology takes the rightness of an act as having to be decided by the individual on the basis of what the particular situation demands of him or her. Rule-deontology takes the rightness of an act as having been already decided by universal rules which are binding on everyone, regardless of the sit
Kant the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative
Kant the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative
Kant: the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear that the maxim passes both prongs of the test, there are
GUN CONTROL OR NOT
GUN CONTROL OR NOT
GUN CONTROL OR NOT? Imagine today, somebody or government came into your town and started taking possession of all your personal fire arms. Just so they could keep you under their control. What would you think or do about this? In the summer of 1768, the British army tried to disarm the new residents of Boston. This process went on until the end of 1775. This took place so that the King of England would not have his invincible army revolted against in the new land to the West. The bostonians of
Convicting Raskolnikov Dostoevsky's views on Criminal Justice
Convicting Raskolnikov Dostoevsky's views on Criminal Justice
Convicting Raskolnikov Dostoevsky's views on Criminal Justice At the close of Crime and Punishment, Raskolinkov is convicted of Murder and sentenced to seven years in Siberian prison. Yet even before the character was conceived, Fyodor Dostoevsky had already convicted Raskolinkov in his mind (Frank, Dostoevsky 101). Crime and Punishment is the final chapter in Dostoevsky's journey toward understanding the forces that drive man to sin, suffering, and grace. Using ideas developed in Notes from Un
Life or Death Who has the Right to Make the Choice
Life or Death Who has the Right to Make the Choice
Life or Death Who has the Right to Make the Choice This paper will introduce a case study that results in an ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma will be clearly stated including obligations and conflicts. Using the Contemporary Utilitarianism theory I will analyze the ethical dilemma. Finally I will analyze the same case using an Egoistic approach as an alternative course of action. Case Study An apparent 19 year old male is brought to the emergency room by ambulance in respiratory failure rel
Rawls' View of Ignorance
Rawls' View of Ignorance
Rawls' View of Ignorance Rawls theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamental principles of justice which would, in turn, guarantee a just and morally acceptable society. The first principle guarantees the right of each person to have the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the liberty of others. The second principle states that social and economic positions are to be a) to everyone's advantage and b) open to all. A key problem to Rawls is to show how such principle
The Differences In The Social Classes Of Mid Victorian England
The Differences In The Social Classes Of Mid Victorian England
The Differences In The Social Classes Of Mid-Victorian England I. Introduction In the Mid-Victorian period in English history there were distinct class differences in its society. There were three classes in England. These were the Aristocracy, the Middle-Class (or Factory owners) and the working class. Each class had specific characteristics that defined its behavior. These characteristics were best seen in four areas of British society. During the time-period known by most historians as the In
Mill and Kants theories
Mill and Kants theories
Mill and Kants theories Get Essays - Essay Search - Submit Essays - Request Essays - Essay Links - FAQ Compare Mill and Kant's ethical theories; which makes a better societal order? John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved. However, good is a relative term. What is good? Utilitarians disa
Risk Taking
Risk Taking
Risk Taking In our lives, it is important to exercise self-command. However, we should not be so concerned with the future that we stifle the present. The question becomes what balance should we strike between self-command and risks? What kinds of risks are acceptable or unacceptable? In this essay, we will use two examples of risks to show the distinction between the two and arrive at a conclusion as to the balance one should have between risk and self command. The first example we will use is
Ideologies
Ideologies
Ideologies Schools and Churches are institutions in society where priests and teachers act as spokespersons to spread a certain set of attitudes, beliefs and values. Similarly, Hollywood is also a very powerful modern day institution, where a star's image can reappropriate, shape and circulate societal myths and ideologies. The construction of a star's image as a commodity of their societal myths and ideologies, has the extraordinary power to exert messages so that even the smallest details bec
English 1302
English 1302
English 1302 November 27, 1996 Mother To The Tribe Throughout time people have been questioning their society. Many wonder if the beliefs and customs of their culture are actually what is in the interest of themselves or even the masses. Times of hardship can create strong and powerful people to bring about change; however the means to achieve such is relevant to ones morals or ethics. For many would agree utilitarianism is the best route to take when trying to appease most individuals; however
Risk Taking
Risk Taking
Risk Taking In our lives, it is important to exercise self-command. However, we should not be so concerned with the future that we stifle the present. The question becomes what balance should we strike between self-command and risks? What kinds of risks are acceptable or unacceptable? In this essay, we will use two examples of risks to show the distinction between the two and arrive at a conclusion as to the balance one should have between risk and self command. The first example we will use is
The Enlightenment and the Role of the Philosophes
The Enlightenment and the Role of the Philosophes
The Enlightenment and the Role of the Philosophes The Enlightenment is a name given by historians to an intellectual movement that was predominant in the Western world during the 18th century. Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment (called philosophes in France) were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only, which they hoped would provide
Rawls theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamen
Rawls theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamen
Rawls theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamental principles of justice which would, in turn, guarantee a just and morally acceptable society. The first principle guarantees the right of each person to have the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the liberty of others. The second principle states that social and economic positions are to be a) to everyone’s advantage and b) open to all. A key problem to Rawls is to show how such principles would be universally a
GENTIC ENGINEERING
GENTIC ENGINEERING
GENTIC ENGINEERING Abstract This paper sets out to defend human genetic engineering with a new bioethical approach, post-humanism, combined with a radical democratic political framework. Arguments for the restriction of human genetic engineering, and specifically germ-line enhancement, are reviewed. Arguments are divided into those which are fundamental matters of faith, or bio-Luddite arguments, and those which can be addressed through public policy, or gene-angst arguments. The four bio-L
Kant the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian
Kant the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian
Kant: the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear that the maxim passes both prongs of the test, there are n
Mill's Utilitarianism Sacrifice the innocent for the common good When
Mill's Utilitarianism Sacrifice the innocent for the common good When
Mill's Utilitarianism: Sacrifice the innocent for the common good? When faced with a moral dilemma, utilitarianism identifies the appropriate considerations, but offers no realistic way to gather the necessary information to make the required calculations. This lack of information is a problem both in evaluating the welfare issues and in evaluating the consequentialist issues which utilitarianism requires be weighed when making moral decisions. Utilitarianism attempts to solve both of these diff
Hopkins Case
Hopkins Case
Hopkins Case Facts: Ann Hopkins was an accomplished college professor, mathematical physicist, and systems management consultant working at Hollins College, IBM, NASA and the accounting firm of Touch Ross. In August of 1978 Hopkins began working for Price Waterhouse (PW), another national accounting firm as a manager in the Management Advisory Services. PW specialized in auditing, tax and management consulting with offices worldwide. The partnership ranks included 662 partners in the United Stat
Third Exam
Third Exam
Third Exam Third Exam. Take-Home. Due April 21st; your grade declines one grade level for each day late. If you use any web source, use quote marks and list citation; presentation as your own writing of a web source or a published book or article will get an F for the course (remember how easy it is to search the web). Retain a copy of your paper and be prepared to explain your answers in an oral examination. Instructions: Type your paper and write no more than 2,000 words in toto. Answer questi
Nuclear Waste The Skull Valley Controversy
Nuclear Waste The Skull Valley Controversy
Nuclear Waste: The Skull Valley Controversy This paper will discuss the moral and ethical issues concerning how and why Locally Undesirable Land Uses (LULUs) and Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) are located. A LULU, or TSDF, can be a power plant, a munitions factory, a county landfill, a medical waste incinerator, a hazardous waste storage facility, a military base, an airport or any number of other facilities that people need, but do not want to live next to. The process of f
Laissez-faire
Laissez-faire
Laissez-faire The industrial revolution changed the lives of the population drastically. It affected both the wealthier and the poorer sections of society, but in very different ways. The rich became richer through the success of manufacturing businesses, but the poor people were living in germ infested, crowded and very unhealthy conditions, much like their place of work. The streets were not cleaned or maintained and the health of the population suffered as a result. Working hours were long an
Kant and Mills Theories
Kant and Mills Theories
Kant and Mill’s Theories Maritza Pelaez Philosophy 213 (Ethics) Spring 04, Section 1 Paper Assignment #1 Kant and Mill’s Theories In July of 1994, a disturbing case arose in regards to a man who murdered an abortion performing doctor. Paul J. Hill, a former Presbyterian minister, and later a strong activist in the pro-choicelife movementactivist, was prosecuted for shooting and killing, Dr. John Britton, an abortion performing doctor, and James Barrett, a clinic volunteer, James Barrett outside
Mental Health Legislation
Mental Health Legislation
Mental Health Legislation In 1997 when the current Government was elected into power one of their aims was to tackle the inequalities that existed within health and social care. Since then we have seen the publication of many policy documents which planned the way forward for health care, particularly in the way that care is delivered. Modern and Dependable (DOH, 1997), set out ways for national improvement in healthcare. Modernising Mental health Services (DOH, 1998a), set out the way on which
Parable of the Sadhu Analysis from three general approaches
Parable of the Sadhu Analysis from three general approaches
Parable of the Sadhu: Analysis from three general approaches. The Parable of the Sadhu presents a complex situation which action immediate action was necessary. Sadhu, an Indian holy man, was discovered naked and barely alive by a group of multicultural mountaineers during their journey. Each ethnic group did a little to help the Sadhu, but none assumed full responsibility. Their priority was in climbing the mountain rather than carrying Sadhu to the village where other people could help him. Al
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant The ethics of Immanuel Kant are based on the belief that ethics stem from rules and reason much like the law of gravity; they are universal and always apply regardless of circumstances. He believed that the capacity to reason was unique to man and when exercised this was what it meant to be a moral human being. His deontological approach rejects Utilitarianism due to its consequentialist nature not being universal and therefore not based on reason. Kant presents a more rigid way of
Progress
Progress
Progress The idea of progress is the revolutionary new idea that came to Europe in the mid 18th century. It was the concept of using knowledge to improve the conditions in the world for people. Frances Bacon used the idea of utilitarianism, that all actions should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. This goes along with the idea of progress, and always working to make things better for everyone. At first, this concept was seen as blasphemous. Th
Good Will Duty and the Categorical Imperative
Good Will Duty and the Categorical Imperative
“Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative” By Immanuel Kant 5/15/04 Ethics Immanuel Kant is considered to be one of the greatest philosophers of all time. He made significant and highly original contributions to ethics, jurisprudence, and the philosophy of religion as well as to ethics and epistemology. In his writing “Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative” Kant says “to possess moral worth is more important than to possess intelligence, humor, strength, or any other talent of t
Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism Ethics 1101 11/07/03 Some people have argued that utilitarianism doesn't account for the claims of justice and that it sometimes endorses unjust actions and makes people surrender their integrity and morals. Utilitarianism sometimes makes people do what they normally won't do because of the situation that they are placed in. My essay will explore examples of what a person would do in certain cases according to the rules of utilitarianism and the critiques of these actions. I'm aga
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF ART
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF ART
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF ART This paper will show the relationship between the environment and fine arts. Both of these subjects are evaluated on a perceptual basis of what the observer sees and appreciates. As the basis for this report, it will be determined what is considered art and what comprises the environment. Defining what is art has been discussed at least since Plato wrote in The Republic about the place of the artist in society. The importance of art to mankind has peculiarly modern i
The Government
The Government
The Government In 1997 when the current Government was elected into power one of their aims was to tackle the inequalities that existed within health and social care. Since then we have seen the publication of many policy documents which planned the way forward for health care, particularly in the way that care is delivered. Modern and Dependable (DOH, 1997), set out ways for national improvement in healthcare. Modernising Mental health Services (DOH, 1998a), set out the way on which mental heal
Liberty And Paternalism
Liberty And Paternalism
Liberty And Paternalism LIBERTY AND PATERNALISM John Stuart Mill and Gerald Dworkin have distinctly opposing views on legal paternalism in that Mill is adamantly against any form of paternalism, whereas Dworkin believes that there do exist circumstances in which paternalism is justified. Both agree that paternalism is justified when the well being of another person is violated or put at risk. Mill takes on a utilitarian argument, explaining that allowing an individual to exercise his freedom of
BUSINESS ETHICS
BUSINESS ETHICS
BUSINESS ETHICS Ethics to me means having and using ones morals to do the right thing. Ethics is so important in business because it gives a company credibility. When a company has credibility the consumers trust the company and will tend to buy from the company more regularly. Many employers want guidelines to help them in their decision making process, so experts came up with some approaches. They are the Utilitarian Approach, The Rights Approach, and The Common-Good Approach. Corporate Socia
Three Philosophers and Their Ideas
Three Philosophers and Their Ideas
Three Philosophers and Their Ideas The advancement of philosophical thought has been noted as one of the key influences directing the course of a culture. Countless people have contributed to this study of the meaning behind life itself; many possessing ideas in common with those of their peers, mentors, and fellow philosophers who have come before them. Granted, Anaxagoras, John Locke, and Edmund Husserl varied distinctly in their overall philosophies. However, all three men, though living in
According to the American Heritage Dictionary sociology is the study
According to the American Heritage Dictionary sociology is the study
According to the American Heritage Dictionary, sociology is the study of human social behavior. In other words, to understand the world around us, we must understand the different aspects of sociology and different sociological viewpoints. As is to be expected, there are many different viewpoints on why people or why society acts the way is does. But there are very few who views and ideas are as prominent as such theorists as Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Although there viewpoints
MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT
MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT
MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHT MIDTERM THOMAS HOBBES: The Leviathan -life is simply the motions of the organism and the man is by nature a selfishly individualistic animal at constant war with all other men. -In a state of nature, men are equal in their self seeking and live out lives which are nasty,solitary, brutish, and short -Fear of violent death is the principle motive which causes men to create a state by contracting to surrender their natural rights and to submit to the absolute authority of
Hand Guns
Hand Guns
Hand Guns I. Introduction It is estimated that in 1994, 39,720 individuals died from firearm related injuries in the United States . This figure is very alarming, especially when one considers this number not as a statistic, but 39,720 human beings. The issue that will be addressed is one that brings with it great controversy. Does our right to own guns infringe upon the rights of others to live? Would it be a greater injustice to ban the right to own guns thus saving lives? Would this action de
Hard Times
Hard Times
Hard Times Utilitarianism Quadruped. Graminivorous. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinders, four eye-teeth, and twelve incisive. Sheds coat in spring...... A perfect example of a product of utilitarian education, Bitzer defines a horse off the top of his head in a split second. Utilitarianism is the assumption that human beings act in a way that highlights their own self interest. It is based on factuality and leaves little room for imagination. Dickens provides three vivid examples of this ut
Roosevelt
Roosevelt
Roosevelt The crash of the stock market brought many hard times. Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was a way to fix these times. John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes were two economists whose economic theories greatly influenced and helped Franklin D. Roosevelt devise a plan to rescue the United States from the Great Depression it had fallen into. John Stuart Mill was a strong believer of expanded government, which the New Deal provided. John Maynard Keynes believed in supply and demand, whic
Trancendentalism
Trancendentalism
Trancendentalism TRANSCENDENTALISM A MODERN PHILOSOPHY Mankind has lost its place at the center of God’s universe. Now, when you watch the weather, or plants growing, or someone suddenly die, what you feel is obnoxious bafflement. In the past, you might have said God was responsible or the devil... Definitions of the universe based on speculation or on scriptural faith are no longer automatically accepted... You would have looked out on this vast and undefined universe in would’ve thought, a
Scarlet letter ambiguity
Scarlet letter ambiguity
scarlet letter ambiguity Ambiguity and The Scarlet Letter go better together than two people that have been happily married for 75 years. There is no exemption in Hawthorne’s exquisite symbolism of one of his main characters, Pearl. The Scarlet Letter A, worn by Hester Prynne, was a punishment for the immoral sin of adultery she had committed. Following Hester's act of adultery, she became pregnant with a baby girl whom she named Pearl. From the first moment that we are introduced to Pearl in Na
The Prinicple Of Utility
The Prinicple Of Utility
The Prinicple Of Utility The Principle of Utility A. Jeremy Bentham (1748 – 1832) There are two main people that talked about the principles of utility and they were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. First off I’ll talk to you about Mr. Bentham. It is helpful to see Bentham’s moral philosophy in the context of his political philosophy, his attempt to find a rational approach to law and legislative action. He argued against “natural law” theory and thought that the classical theories of Plato
Euthanisa
Euthanisa
Euthanisa The applied ethical issue of euthanasia, or mercy killing, concerns whether it is morally permissible for a third party, such as a physician, to end the life of a terminally ill patient who is in intense pain. The euthanasia controversy is part of a larger issue concerning the right to die. Staunch defenders of personal liberty argue that all of us are morally entitled to end our lives when we see fit. Thus, according to these people, suicide is in principle morally permissible. For he
Pro Choice Among Women
Pro Choice Among Women
Pro Choice Among Women An onlookers view of Pro Choice amongst women Many clinics provide abortion services for women with unplanned or uncontrollable pregnancies. Some women find themselves with an unplanned pregnancy rather than an uncontrollable one. Unplanned in fact that a contraceptive failed, or may not have been easily accessible: uncontrolled in the sense of factors being greater than limited contraception. Abortion has been performed in many clinics as a treatment for unfit or unhealth
Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism The concept of sustainable development is an attempt to balance two moral demands placed on the environment. The first demand is for development, including economic development or growth. It arises mainly from the interests of people who live in developing countries. Their present poverty gives them a low quality of life and calls urgently for steps to improve their quality of life. The second demand is for sustainability, for ensuring that we do not risk the future in the sake of
Happiness
Happiness
Happiness Happiness: In one word, this concept exemplifies the American dream. People go to any means by which to obtain the many varied materials and issues that induce pleasures in each individual, and intrinsically, this emotion remains the ultimate goal, John Stuart Mill, a nineteenth century philosopher, correctly advocated the pursuit of happiness, and maintained the concept that above all other values, pleasure existed as the final destination, Mill's hedonistic views correctly and ration
John Rawls and Utilitarianism
John Rawls and Utilitarianism
John Rawls and Utilitarianism Heath C. Hoculock The social contract theory of John Rawls challenges utilitarianism by pointing out the impracticality of the theory. Mainly, in a society of utilitarians, a citizens rights could be completely ignored if injustice to this one citizen would benefit the rest of society. Rawls believes that a social contract theory, similar those proposed by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, would be a more logical solution to the question of fairness in any government. So
Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment Raskolnikov's Mathematical Evaluatio
Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment Raskolnikov's Mathematical Evaluatio
Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment: Raskolnikov's Mathematical Evaluation of Moral Dilemma Presented To Him Exemplifies The Empirical View of Utilitarianism One death, and a thousand lives in exchange--it's simple arithmetic. -Raskolnikov Raskolnikov's mathematical evaluation of the moral dilemma presented to him in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment exemplifies the empirical view of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism attempts to distinguish between right and wrong by measuring a decision based on i
Critique Of Bentham's Quantitative Utilitarianism
Critique Of Bentham's Quantitative Utilitarianism
Critique Of Bentham's Quantitative Utilitarianism Over time, the actions of mankind have been the victim of two vague labels, right and wrong. The criteria for these labels are not clearly defined, but they still seem to be the standard by which the actions of man are judged. There are some people that abide by a deontological view when it comes to judging the nature of actions; the deontological view holds that it is a person's intention that makes an action right or wrong. On the other hand th
Mill And Kant's Ethical Theories
Mill And Kant's Ethical Theories
Mill And Kant's Ethical Theories Get Essays - Essay Search - Submit Essays - Request Essays - Essay Links - FAQ Compare Mill and Kant's ethical theories; which makes a better societal order? John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved. However, good is a relative term. What is good? Utilitaria
Philosophical Foundations Of Poverty And Distribution
Philosophical Foundations Of Poverty And Distribution
Philosophical Foundations Of Poverty And Distribution Any Lockeian scholar would be lying if they told you that any topic in the secondary literature on the Two Treatises of Government was more famous (or infamousÉdepending on who you talk to), widely debated, or caused more controversy than the old Oxford gradÕs theory of property. Some are shouting from the left that Locke argues a rights claim for subsistence for all individuals, that it may even support MarxÕs theory of exploitation. Yelling