Philosophy

Philosophy When I was born, I did not know the difference between right and wrong. Now, I do. The word philosophy means the love of knowledge. One type of knowledge is propter quid, which ask the question why or how. In this paper, I will demonstrate how Socrates, Hume and Aristotle, three well known philosophers, would explain how I acquired this knowledge in relation to the principles of right and wrong. Socrates is the first philosopher, I will discuss. Since Socrates did not write anything
ECONOMIC TRANSITION IN POLAND & RUSSIA Since approximately 1988, Poland and the republic of Russia (formerly Soviet Union) have gone through major economic reform. The main emphasis of this paper is to identify the different approaches that the governments in these two countries have taken and to look at the positive and negative effects that these drastic changes have had on their economies. Specifically, the question asked in this paper is, "Why has the economic transition in Poland been more
A Time of Change The enlightenment was a great time of change in both Europe and America. Some of the biggest changes, however, happened in the minds of many and in the writings of many philosophers. These included some of the beliefs of David Hume, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Francois Voltaire. Writers during this time focused on optimism, which is the opinion to do everything for the best (Chaney 119), and the best for these philosophers was to stretch the minds of the ordinary.
Descartes was a "jack of all trades", making major contributions to the areas of anatomy, cognitive science, optics, mathematics and philosophy. Underlying his methodology is the belief that all science is based on mathematics. This is manifested in his unification of ancient geometry and his new alegbra based on the Cartesian coodinate system. For Descartes, certainty in philosphy and in mathematics is gained through understanding. We may know that two apples and two apples makes four apples,
Marcus Garvey Historians familiar with Garvey's career generally regard him as the preeminent symbol of the insurgent wave of black nationalism that developed in the period following World War I. Although born in Jamaica, Garvey achieved his greatest success in the United States. He did so despite the criticism of many African-American leaders and the covert opposition of the United States Department of Justice and its Bureau of Investigation (forerunner of the FBI). As a young man, Garvey had
Descartes vs. Berkeley 03/05/95 In Descartes' First Meditation, Descartes writes that he has come to the conclusion that many of the opinions he held in his youth are doubtful, and consequently all ideas built upon those opinions are also doubtful. He deduces that he will have to disprove his current opinions and then construct a new foundation of knowledge if he wants to establish anything firm and lasting in the sciences that is absolutely true. But rather than disprove each of his opinions i
History of Education in America As far back as the beginning of our nation, early leaders emphasized the importance of education and provided funds to create education for children from every background in our country. Thomas Jefferson said, “ Above all things, I hope the education of the common people will be extended to; convinced that on this good sense we may rely with the most security for the preservation of a due degree of liberty.” He knew the importance of education (Jennings, 1996). I
Industrial Revolution A report concerning critical thinking and the Industrial Revolution. The 18th century brought about many changes to European countries. Advancements in science, technology and engineering brought about an improvement in living conditions to the widespread area. The improved living conditions induced an increase of population by the millions. From 1750-1800, the English population grew from 6 to 9 million and the French population grew from 19 to an enormous increase of 26
The UnIslamic Nation of Islam The mention of the “Nation of Islam” will undoubtedly cause an immense number of responses in any situation. To some, this organization symbolizes blatant racism. To others, it is seen as a savior of the black community. Regardless of one’s opinion of the Nation, though, the differences between Al-Islam(traditional Islam) and the beliefs of the Nation cannot be denied. The Nation of Islam is a social movement. This social movement is undoubtedly rooted in religion,
Samantha Srinivasan Philosophy 101-01 Prof. Evans Dec. 16, 1998 Paper Assignment: Topic #3 Nietzsche is known as a philosopher who was very poetic in his writings. He used a real Persian prophet named Zarathustra, as his character within his philosophy. The way Plato used Socrates, Nietzsche used Zarathustra’s mouth to speak his philosophy. An example, how Nietzsche uses Zarathustra in his book is in the chapter entitled “ On the Tree on the Mountain.” Within this chapter, the story represents
The Grin that Apes a Smile "Optimism, n. The doctrine, or belief that everything is beautiful, including what is ugly, everything good, especially the bad, and everything right that is wrong. It is held with greatest tenacity by those accustomed to the mischance of falling into adversity, and is most acceptably expounded with the grin that apes a smile. It is hereditary, but fortunately not contagious," writes Ambrose Bierce in The Devil's Dictionary. Optimism is more traditionally known as the
Kant: the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear that the maxim passes both prongs of the test, there are
Shane Shane is a classic example of western fiction in which Schaefer contrasts the values of the isolated family farm with the lawlessness of the cowtown. Shane, the gunfighter protagonist, attempts to find peace with the farmers but can only help clear away the violence for the civilization the farmers bring. Schaefer reveals the difficult struggles of homesteaders who fight to bring justice to an ungoverned land, and strives to fulfill the hopes and promises of prosperity to their families.
Human Rights On December tenth 1948 in the Palis de Chaillot in Paris, the United Nation's General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document is made up of thirty articles which deal with a series of basic human rights and duties. It follows the premise that " the declaration is a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teach
Macbeth Macbeth is the epitome of what the literary world regards a "tragic hero". His admirable qualities are supplanted with greed and hate when he is duped by the three witches. Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches. Yes, it is the first scene from William Shakespeare's Macbeth, a tragic tale of one man's quest for power and his ultimate defeat. The story revolves around our tragic hero, Macbeth, and how an admirable and noble man, so established in society, can fall so greatly. Through
Discrimination The struggle for social and economic equality of Black people in America has been long and slow. It is sometimes amazing that any progress has been made in the racial equality arena at all; every tentative step forward seems to be diluted by losses elsewhere. For every "Stacey Koons" that is convicted, there seems to be a Texaco executive waiting to send Blacks back to the past. Throughout the struggle for equal rights, there have been courageous Black leaders at the forefront of
HISTORY OF BASKETBALL Dr. James Naismith is known world-wide as the inventor of Basketball. He was born in 1861 in Ramsay township, near Almonte, Ontario, Canada. The concept of basketball was born from his school days in the area where he played a simple child's game called duck-on-a-rock outside of his schoolhouse. The game had a purpose to knock a "duck" off the top of a large rock by throwing another rock at it. Naismith then went on to attend McGill University in Montreal, Quebec,Canada. A
The Life of Rene' Descartes Rene' Descartes was a French mathematician, philosopher and anatomist. He contributed a great deal to modern ideas , particularly those concerned with geometry. He was known in his time as a mechanist, because he believed that nature could be explained through rational means, and inherent patterns could be found. During his life, Descartes remade geometry and made modern geometry possible. Rene' Descartes was born on March, 31 1596 in La Haye, Touraine, which was a fo
Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in a place called Trier in Prussia. Marx attended the university of Bonn and later the university of Berlin, where he studied law, while majoring in history and philosophy. Karl Marx was married to his childhood friend Jenny von Westphalen, in 1843. Karl met his closest friend Frederick Engels in September of 1844, when he arrived in Paris. Together they participated in the activities of many revolutionary societies, and formed the theory and ideas of revoluti
Anais Nin Anais Nin was a passionate woman, not only in her works but also in her life. The fact that she lived life to the fullest is what made her books so intriguing. Although her diaries were a chronicle of her experience, her fiction showed the reader sides of her while displaying everyone's innermost desires. In her own words Nin says, "the role of the writer is not to say what we can all say, but what we are unable to say" (Rollins), and she does exactly that. For this reason her works ta
Andrew Jackson Born to Irish immigrants on March 15, 1767, Andrew Jackson was to become the first "rags to riches" President the country had ever seen. He grew up in South Carolina and fought in the Revolutionary War at only thirteen. His entire immediate family, parents and siblings, died as a cause of the war, whether it was being killed in battle or death from disease. He went on to serve two terms as the seventh President of the U.S., leaving behind a legacy of administrative policy and even
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was one of the most important black leaders of the Antislavery movement. He was born in 1817 in Talbot County, MD. He was the son of Harriet Bailey and an unknown white man. His mother was a slave so therefore he was born a slave. He lived with his grandparents until the age of eight, so he never knew his mother well. When he turned eight, he was sent to "Aunt Kathy," a woman who took care of slave children on the plantation of Colonel Edward Lloyd. When he
Yukon Jack The short lived life of Jack London is a direct reflection of his literary works major theme, the struggle for survival of strong men driven by primitive emotions. “To Build A Fire” and White Fang are two of his works that coincide his life experiences and illustrate his literary theme. London was born the illegitimate son of W.H. Chaney and Flora Wellmen in 1876. He never saw his biological father and his mother had little to do with him. Eight months after his birth, his mother marr
Animal Experimentation Introduction Animal experimentation has been a part of biomedical and behavioral research for several millennia; experiments with animals were conducted in Greece over 2,000 years ago. Many advances in medicine and in the understanding of how organisms function have been the direct result of animal experimentation. Concern over the welfare of laboratory animals is also not new, as reflected in the activities of various animal welfare and antivivisectionist groups dating ba
John Muir's Trail in History John Muir was a man of great importance in the history of the United States and in the preservation of it's beauty. His tireless efforts to protect natural wonders such as Yosemite Valley demonstrated his undying love for the outdoors. Muir took a stand against the destructive side of civilization in a dauntless battle to save America's forest lands. The trail of preservation that Muir left behind has given countless numbers of people the opportunity to experience na
Management and The Body Shop In this paper I will be taking a look at basic management functions. The approaches, and the synthesis of two views of management. I will attempt to take an overview of culture and its effect on a company. In today's changing global environments many companies have joined the open trade policies, and existing foreign opportunities available to growing companies with positive views and socially responsible attitudes. It all sounds like a lot to cover in a short essay
Temagami Table of Contents Introduction 2 The History of the Forest 2 The Forests of Canada 3 Part One: The History of the Logger 5 The Canadian Forestry Industry 5 The Ontario Forestry Industry 7 Part Two: Forest Conservation in Ontario 8 Political Activity 8 Temagami 9 Part Three: The Temagami Debate 11 The Forester 11 The Environmentalist 12 Part Four: The Law of the Land 13 Civil Disobedience 13 Government Legislation / Wildlands League Lawsuit 15 Natural vs. Positive Law 16 Conclusion 17 Su
The Right to Privacy by Robert Bork. Robert Bork's The Right of Privacy examined the landmark case Griswald v. Conneticut. Bork's "originalist" view proclaimed that Justice Douglas erroneously interpreted the right of privacy from the Constitution. The originalist view is that judges must strictly adhere to the language of the Constitution, thus people do not have a general right to privacy because it was never actually written into the Constitution. This view severely restricts judges in dealin
"The world today seems to be going crazy": The Unabomber's Manifesto It was May 25th 1978, Terry Marker was on his usual patrol on campus at the University of Illinois. This earmark package, addressed to an engineering professor at Rensselaer from a material science professor at Northwestern, was found in a parking lot. What seemed like an insignificant misplaced parcel was about to start a reign of terror and the longest manhunt in U.S. history. Officer Marker retrieved the package and began to
Australians Against Further Immigration OUR VIEW Environment Humanitarianism Economics Health Defences Education Culture Australia's immigration policy is disastrous, proceeding as if there is no balance of payment problem, no foreign debt and no geographical or environmental constraints to population growth. Continued immigration will finally and irreversibly alter the natural and urban environment, economic viability and attitudes and culture of our nation. The people have been consulted on, o
Affirmative Action: Solution or Confusion? Affirmative action is a plan designed to end discrimination by guaranteeing minorities will be hired, regardless of race or gender. While our country hires such groups based upon these guarantees, the qualifications of such people are occasionally overlooked. Many believe that affirmative action is a very effective plan; however, the population which opposes such action frequently includes people of various minorities, as well as many others who have be
Capital Punishment By: Omer Kassam Thesis One: In principle a case can be made on moral grounds both supporting and opposing capital punishment. Thesis two: Concretely and in practice, compelling arguments against capital punishment can be made on the basis of its actual administration in our society. Two different cases can be made. One is based on justice and the nature of a moral community. This leads to a defense of capital punishment. The second is based on love and the nature of an ideal s
Personal Freedom In the United States of America No other democratic society in the world permits personal freedoms to the degree of the United States of America. Within the last sixty years, American courts, especially the Supreme Court, have developed a set of legal doctrines that thoroughly protect all forms of the freedom of expression. When it comes to evaluating the degree to which we take advantage of the opportunity to express our opinions, some members of society may be guilty of violat
The Influence of Green Groups on the Policy of the United States Abstract: This research examines the relationship between environmental groups and the policies of the United States. The United States political system has been historically anthropocen-tric, or human centered. Environmental groups have been attempting to change this to a biocentric or ecocentric viewpoint, which includes the rights of animals and the environment. These views are nature centered instead of human centered. This stu
Karl Marx and Marxism Karl Marx set the wheels of modern Communism and Socialism in motion with his writings in the late nineteenth century. In collaboration with his friend, Heinrich Engels, he produced the The Communist Manifesto, written in 1848. Many failed countries' political and socio-economic structures have been based on Marx's theories, for example the USSR, East Germany etc. Many people believe that Marxism is not applicable to today's society, as Karl Marx put forward his ideas not a
Paramilitary and Survivalist Groups There are many different forms of militias and paramilitary groups, whose membership and ideology often vary from, place to place. However, what most have in common, is their hatred for the federal government. In recent years, there have been far too many violent acts done by these militias, seeking to prove their points to the government, and the public at large. They have threatened to blow up power plants, government buildings, even the Hoover Dam. They hol
Same Sex Marriages? By Definition, It Cannot Exist What is marriage? This word has different meanings for different people. To some marriage means a commitment between two people in holy matrimony, or religious marriage. To others it is just a legal contract between two people, or civil marriage. In actuality there is only one definition for a marriage. According to Webster‘s Dictionary, a marriage is a state of living together as husband and wife joined in wedlock. Webster also identifies a hus
Socialism The term socialism is commonly used to refer both to an ideology--a comprehensive set of beliefs or ideas about the nature of human society and its future desirable state--and to a state of society based on that ideology. Socialists have always claimed to stand above all for the values of equality, social justice, cooperation, progress, and individual freedom and happiness, and they have generally sought to realize these values by the abolition of the private-enterprise economy (see CA
Liberalism and Freedom Liberalism is a force that has produced change from the birth of this nation to the politics of today. Liberal tenets have been a basis of thought and action in American politics since well before the signing of the Constitution. Certainly, liberalism has had to transform in order to remain a legitimate force throughout the years. When considering this transformation, one may ask whether or not the ideas and goals of classical liberalism have been lost in the conversion in
God Since the time of Epicurus to the present, many people have had certain beliefs in myths and in the Gods. Epicurus presents his philosophy pertaining to these convictions. In his reasoning, he derives a definition of mythology and of the Gods contradicting to much of popular thought. Many people depend on mythology when they need an explanation for a phenomenon. Epicurus rationalizes that mythology is unchangeable and dogmatic, for “when one accepts one theory and rejects another which is eq
Shakespeare and his Theater Compared to the technical theaters of today, the London public theaters in the time of Queen Elizabeth I seem to be terribly limited. The plays had to be performed during daylight hours only and the stage scenery had to be kept very simple with just a table, a chair, a throne, and maybe a tree to symbolize a forest. Many say that these limitations were in a sense advantages. What the theater today can show for us realistically, with massive scenery and electric lighti
Insights on De Tocqueville's Democracy In America It has been said that a French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville, who visited the United States in the 1830's, "understood us" in a way that few observers (foreign and domestic) have. Furthermore, Tocqueville's Democracy in America is often cited by present-day critics because so many of the observations in it seem extraordinarily suitable even more than one hundred and fifty years later. Alexis de Tocqueville was born 1805 into a minor noble fam
How Well Did the English Exchequer Function in the Twelfth Century? The English exchequer was the central board responsible for all in comings and out goings into the royal treasury. It arrived with the Normans and was the first system of centralized revenue extraction to appear that although crude was a direct predecessor to the modern one. The information on how the Exchequer functioned as a method of institutionalised revenue extraction is from the `The course of the Exchequer' written by Ri
The Life of Aristotle When Plato died in 347 bc, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (died 345 bc), was ruler. There he counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias. After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians, Aristotle went to Pella, the Macedonian capital, where he became the tutor of the king's young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athe
Carl Orffs philosophies in Music Education While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His fathers regiment band would often play through some of the young Orffs first att
Catcher in the Rye - Holden and His Phony Family The protagonist, Holden Caulfield, interacts with many people throughout J.D. Salinger’s novel The Catcher in the Rye, but probably none have as much impact on him as certain members of his immediate family. The ways Holden acts around or reacts to the various members of his family give the reader a direct view of Holden’s philosophy surrounding each member. How do Holden’s different opinions of his family compare and do his views constitute
Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson was raised in a traditional New England home in the mid 1800s. Her father along with the rest of the family had become Christians and she alone decided to rebel against that and reject the Church. She like many of her contemporaries had rejected the traditional views in life and adopted the new transcendental outlook. Massachusetts, the state where Emily was born and raised in, before the transcendental period was the epicenter of religious practice. Founded by t
Legend of Martin Luther King Jr Nearly three centuries ago, African slaves were brought to the New World and put into slavery. They were treated more cruelly in the United States than in any other country that had ever practiced slavery, and ever since its prohibition, African-Americans have fought oppression. Martin Luther King Jr., would aid immensely in this fight. He was born in Atlanta Georgia in 1929. His father, Martin Luther King Sr. Was a Baptist minister and also preached for civil ri
Gods Of Management The author, in the Gods of Management, attempts to classify four distinct management cultures that exist within all organizations. The author further uses the ancient Greek gods to symbolize these management cultures or philosophies. There are four types of management cultures or philosophies present within all organizations. The four cultures are the club (Zeus), role (Apollo), task (Athena), and existential (Dionysus) cultures. The first culture the author discusses is the
A Streetcar Named Desire Tennessee Williams was once quoted as saying "Symbols are nothing but the natural speech of drama...the purest language of plays" (Adler 30). This is clearly evident in A Streetcar Named Desire, one of Williams's many plays. I n analyzing the main character of the story, Blanche DuBois, it is crucial to use both the literal text as well as the symbols of the story to get a complete and thorough understanding of her. Before one can understand Blanche's character one must