Kill A Mockingbird By Harper

To Kill A Mockingbird The Brave Jem Finch
To Kill A Mockingbird The Brave Jem Finch
To Kill A Mockingbird: The Brave Jem Finch The book To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, has manycharacters and themes. The main themes are racism and theinteraction of colored and white people in the south. The settingis Maycomb County, Alabama. The main characters are the Finchfamily; father Atticus, daughter and narrater Jean Louise (Scout),and her older brother, Jem Finch. Jem was a brave boy. He was brave enough to stand up and do the things he had to, even if they scared him. An example
Evil Relation of Experience and Maturation
Evil Relation of Experience and Maturation
Evil: Relation of Experience and Maturation Our greatest evils flow from ourselves (Tripp 192). This statement, by Rousseau, epitomizes many points of evil that are discussed in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird. In our world today, we are stared in the face everyday with many facets of evil. These nefarious things come in several forms, including, but not limited to discrimination of sex, race, ethnicity, physical appearance, and popularity, alcoholism, drug abuse, irresponsibility, and eve
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird In the classic novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, there are two families that are textbook examples of complete opposites on the moral ladder, and in the community. The Cunninghams and the Ewells have two distinctly different reputations. The Cunninghams, although extremely poor, are highly respected throughout Maycomb County. The Ewells, being just as poor as the Cunninghams, are deeply despised. The Cunninghams are very respected by the citizens of Maycomb. They
Prejudice is defined in the dictionary as hatred or unfair treatment o
Prejudice is defined in the dictionary as hatred or unfair treatment o
Prejudice is defined in the dictionary as hatred or unfair treatment of a particular group, such as members of a race or religion. Although prejudice has a definite definition in the dictionary, the novel;To Kill A Mockingbird teaches us that there are many diferent form of prejudice. In the novel, Harper Lee used many different types of prejudice such as stereotyping, racism, and segregation. During the novel, Harper Lee uses segregation as a form of prejudice. One of the many examples of segr
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird The book To Kill a Mockingbird was written by Harper Lee. It was published in 1960 then it went on to win the Pulitzer prize in 1961 and was later made into an Academy Award winning film. Harper Lee always considered her book to be a simple love story. Today it is regarded as a masterpiece of American Literature. There are so many characters in this book that I can't name all of them. Here are most of the characters. The Finch family contains of Atticus (The head of the ho
To Kill A Mockingbird: Controversial Issues
To Kill A Mockingbird: Controversial Issues
To Kill A Mockingbird: Controversial Issues In the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee addresses many controversial issues. Such issues as, racism, discrimination, and social class are explored. During the 1950's in the small county of Maycomb, the mentality of most southern people reflected that of the nation. Most of the people were racist and discriminatory. In the novel, these ideas are explored by a young girl, Scout. The readers see the events that occur through her eyes. In the book
Title Childhood experience
Title Childhood experience
Title: Childhood experience Have you ever thought of an answer to reply to your children, when they ask you, “What was the world like when you were a child?”, “What things that happened that impressed you most when you were a child?” or “How interesting is your childhood experience?”. Everybody must have had their childhood. Some of the experiences may cause them to smile, or even laugh, while some of them may bring back bitter memories. It is always hard to express the childhood incidents or e
There comes a time is each person's life when they reach the point whe
There comes a time is each person's life when they reach the point whe
There comes a time is each person's life when they reach the point where they are no longer children, but adults. The transition from a child into a young adult is often referred to as the coming of age, or growing up. The time when this transition occurs is different in everyone, since everyone is an individual and no two people are alike. Certain children reach this stage through a tragic, painful event which affects them to such extent that they are completely changed. Other children reach
Iron Man
Iron Man
Iron Man What is a man without morals? What is a man who does not care about what is right, but what is popular. A man with no morals is a poor man indeed. Atticus Finch is none of these. In Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird Atticus is the only man in town he would defend a black man. He would not let his children fight and he did not care about public opinion. Atticus does not discriminate on the basis of color and does not use the word Niger. He is a brave man because he believes in morals i
The Themes in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
The Themes in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee
The Themes in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee The novel To Kill a Mockingbird succeeds in portraying the lifestyle of a relaxed southern town in the early 20th century. It shows the families, feelings, and bigotry of the time. There are three main themes in the novel, which are: justice is not blind, mob rule is not the way to solve things, and that you shouldn't fear or resent something that hasn't done anything to disturb life. These themes are true in the novel and are also true in every
Coming of Age
Coming of Age
Coming of Age (Jeremy Finch) The coming of age of Jem, Jeremy Finch, is shown in many ways through out the book To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee. He changes socially. He changes mentally. His feelings change emotionally. He also changes to become more of an adult figure. Another way he changes is that he changes physically. Jem changes through out the book socially by the way he starts having better feelings toward other people. There are many times when Jem start feeling bad for other peopl
This essay can be modified and used for self-benefit in any way
This essay can be modified and used for self-benefit in any way
This essay can be modified and used for self-benefit in any way. -- In To Kill a Mockingbird, a novel by Harper Lee, Jean Louise Scout Finch, through her many experiences, came to realize many lessons. Two of which follow: who it is sinful to harm and the understanding of others. She achieved them when observing Tom Robinson's trial and standing on the Radleys' porch. Scout learned that it is a sin to hurt someone who doesn't do harm to others. Tom Robinson was a man who worked hard to suppor
The story To Kill a Mockingbird is a very fine novel which exemplifies
The story To Kill a Mockingbird is a very fine novel which exemplifies
The story, To Kill a Mockingbird is a very fine novel which exemplifies the life in the south and the human rights and values given to everybody. The book especially took the case of prejudice to a serious extreme. From the title, a mockingbird through the eyes of Harper Lee, is a person who has fallen victim to vicious stereotypes. The title To Kill a Mockingbird explains itself quite clearly in the end of the novel when Tom Robinson, one of the mockingbirds, is killed due to the stereotypes d
In Harper Lee's novel To Kill A Mockingbird an issue is addressed whic
In Harper Lee's novel To Kill A Mockingbird an issue is addressed whic
In Harper Lee's novel To Kill A Mockingbird, an issue is addressed which could be considered controversial. This issue is one that everyone faces each day, no one particularly likes to suffer from it, yet we often do it to others. This issue is injustice, and it was ever-present in To Kill A Mockingbird . Some of the types of injustice confronted in this novel include, racial injustice, religious injustice, and discrimination of women. Harper Lee often offers suttle remedies that would put an e
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD CHARACTER ANALYSIS Marcus Alexander English 9 Due: 6/3/96 Character Analysis Throughout life people go through changes. These changes can be brought on by events in a person’s life, the need to adapt, adolescence, as well as other things. In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, many characters go through changes including Jem. He changes in his attitude, his beliefs, and his interests. Throughout the beginning of the book Jem plays and is on the same thought patt
Individually people can be decent and kind however in a mob people can
Individually people can be decent and kind however in a mob people can
Individually, people can be decent and kind; however, in a mob, people can be judgmental and cruel. In the classic by Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird, several mob scenes portray the cruelty carried in numbers, but also exhibits that that any one person within that mob can have the strength to overcome the crowd and have the will to speak out. In two specific mobs, one of the Cunnighams proves to have the scruples to say what they believe deeply believe is right. The first mob situation occurr
Literary Analysis of
Literary Analysis of
Literary Analysis of To Kill a Mockingbird In the book, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Scout was exposed numerous times to the outwardly prejudice people of Maycomb Co., Alabama. These prejudices are separated into what I would consider three catagories: race, sex, and lifestyle discriminations. The most prominent being the racial descrimination, which as Harper Lee pointed out, was not just limited to the cacausion population of Maycomb. One of these instinces was when Lula commented on
Advanced English Ted Korolchuk
Advanced English Ted Korolchuk
Advanced English Ted Korolchuk Mrs. Feldhausen 8-23-95 Trading Places If I could trade places with somebody, it would be Atticus Finch, from the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. There are many reasons I would trade. One of the reasons I would choose Atticus is because he is more considerate than I, and has a much better temper. For example, if Bob Ewell spit in my face, I would instinctively bash his head against the wall. Furthermore, when Scout beat up Cousin Francis for calling At
In the novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee the author comments o
In the novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee the author comments o
In the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, the author comments on life. Specifically, Harper Lee comments on racism and true courage. Racism is the first subject that the author comments on. It is obvious from her writing that she feels racism is that it is wrong. This is displayed in several ways. The best example of racism is the trial of Tom Robinson. Tom received a guilty verdict even though he was innocent. The white jury convicted him for the sole reason that he is black. Another
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird Prejudice has caused the pain and suffering of others for many centuries. Some examples of this include the Holocaust and slavery in the United States. In to Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee racism was the cause of much agony to the blacks of a segregated South. Along with blacks, other groups of people are judged unfairly just because of their difference from others. The prejudice and bigotry of society causes the victimization of people with differences. Some who are dis
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird Humanities 1010 Literature Art Encounter December 13, 2004 To Kill a Mockingbird: The most important theme of the 1960 Pulitzer Prize winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird is author Harper Lee’s exploration of the moral nature of human beings, especially the struggle in every human soul between discrimination and tolerance. The novel is very effective in not only revealing prejudice, but in examining the nature of prejudice, how it works, and its consequences. One of the way
Book Review To Kill a Mocking Bird
Book Review To Kill a Mocking Bird
Book Review (To Kill a Mocking Bird) Set in a small Alabaman town in the 1940s, the novel’s strength lies in demonstrating how bigotry works through stereotyping. Slap a label on that’s a general condemnation and then you needn’t look at the unique human being behind it. The title of the book pinpoints this theme: ‘to kill a mockingbird,’ says one of the characters, ‘is a sin (because mockingbirds) don’t eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hea
Justice is essential to a decent society Discuss this with reference t
Justice is essential to a decent society Discuss this with reference t
“Justice is essential to a decent society” – Discuss this with reference to the text To Kill a Mockingbird. In a world increasingly troubled by hatred, greed and intolerance, the search for solutions is one that undoubtedly thrives in the minds of each individual conscious of the need for change Decency is a word that implies basic moral standards, but it would surprise many to realise the difficulties these basic standards face in surviving, and it is an ideal still yet to be achieved in our wo
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird To Kill a Mockingbird 5 chunk essay English 10 9.25.03 The novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is a book about two children, Jem and Scout, growing up in the south during the great depression. During the course of the story, they meet many people. Jem and Scout develop perceptions about the people they meet, some of which are true, and some of which turn out later not to be true. Some of the people they are wrong about include Boo Radley, Mrs. Dubose, and Atticus. At
Can prejudice in a community be repressed
Can prejudice in a community be repressed
Can prejudice in a community be repressed? English Honors/Gaviati In To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, certain individuals in the community attempt to chasten prejudice by embracing the values and beliefs that differ from their own. When Atticus agrees to take a case defending a Negro he furthers the destruction of “Maycomb’s usual disease” (88). Conversely, the majority of the town’s people are annulling the bonds that connect them as a community. By defending the Negro, Tom Robinson, Atticu
To Kill A Mocking bird
To Kill A Mocking bird
To Kill A Mocking bird A novel I have read recently and thoroughly enjoyed is 'To Kill A Mockingbird' by Harper Lee. It portrays a life and the role of racism in the 1930's. . In this essay I will talk about the themes of racism and predjudice. I will also look at the characterisation to show the contrast of how it affects all of the characters and the use of symbolism of the mockingbird representing different characters. The theme of prejudice in To Kill A Mockingbird is much more than just a c
The Social Class Structure in To Kill A Mockingbird
The Social Class Structure in To Kill A Mockingbird
The Social Class Structure in To Kill A Mockingbird English 10 3B 1 March 2004 Thesis Statement: In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee portrays the strict social class structure in the 1930’s through characters such as Atticus Finch, Scout Finch, Tom Robinson and others in order to help explain the problems with gender and racial roles in society during this time. I. Men A. Male Characters in the Novel 1. Atticus Finch a. His openness to different opinions b. Tries to “walk in other’s shoes” (3.3
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird left trailing in the dust behind A Time to Kill 1 Some people believe that movies that are based or modeled after books are cut up to fit the most important scenes in therefore making the viewer lose some its intensity, But undoubtedly to anyone the movie A Time to Kill is much more intense than Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. This movie has a lot of violent content which penetrates whoever is watching. Also the topic of racism is expressed more openly and taken to a wh
To Kill a Mokingbird
To Kill a Mokingbird
To Kill a Mokingbird Period 3 March 15, 2004 To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on creating oneself endlessly, Henri Louis Bergson. This quote relates to To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, in the way that the characters change throughout the novel. Scout changes very much but, Jem also changes, and as a part of maturing Jem learns about society. Jem matures the most out of all the characters in the book. In the beginning of the book To Kill A Mockingbird, Jem is
The True Nature of Courage in the Novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harpe
The True Nature of Courage in the Novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harpe
The True Nature of Courage in the Novel ‘To Kill A Mockingbird’ by Harper Lee In the novel ‘To Kill a Mocking Bird’ by Harper Lee there is a theme of courage throughout the whole novel. There are several kinds of courage that Harper Lee uses: There is the basic courage required to overcome childish fears, such as Scout, Jem and Dill running past the Radley house and the slightly more serious examples, such as Atticus facing the mad dog. This is physical courage. There is also the more difficult
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird Choose any novel that you have read and comment on its historical content. To Kill A Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, is set in the imaginary town called Maycomb, Alabama during the depression of the 1930s. It is a coming-of-age story whose narrator and protagonist is Jean Louise Finch, or Scout. Although the story itself takes place from the time Scout is aged 6 to 9, it is told by Scout as an adult. Lee uses the unprejudiced observations of a child to reveal the discri
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird By Harper Lee December 7, 2003 4th Hour In the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, the title has a true meaning, which occurs within the characters of the book. These characters are Boo Radley and Tom Robinson. The meaning of the title is that you should not harm an innocent creature, such as a mockingbird. The literal meaning of the title, To Kill a Mockingbird is not to kill an innocent creature, in this case a mockingbird. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, the re
Life Lessons
Life Lessons
Life Lessons Honors English 10 15 March 2004 The age of when a child begins to grow into a mature adult is never accurate, for it is different for every child. Every child goes through different events at different ages that causes them to grow due to the life they lead. Jean Louise Finch was only a mere age of six when she starts to learn life’s most significant lessons. But it is not through school where she learned this education about life, but through her own personal experiences and events
To Kill A Mocking Bird
To Kill A Mocking Bird
To Kill A Mocking Bird To Kill a Mockingbird Usually, my method of writing a book review starts off with a quote. However, this time with this particular book I�ve decided to begin with a description of the author. Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926. She studied law along with her father and sister. In her allegorical novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee writes about a young girl in a small southern town by showing the difficulties she will have to face as she grows up. The author�s p
Similarities Of Harper Lee s Life To Her Nove  to
Similarities Of Harper Lee s Life To Her Nove to
Similarities Of Harper Lee's Life To Her Nove to To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee What similarities did Harper Lee�s life have with Scouts life? In Harper Lee�s story she writes about many things that happened to her as a child. In the story Harper is telling the story in the position scout is in. Lee is actually telling The story that she lived as a child. Her real life had various similarities to Scouts life. In this essay I will explain the similarities of Harper Lee�s life to Scout
To Kill A Mochingbird  Trial Of Life
To Kill A Mochingbird Trial Of Life
To Kill A Mochingbird: Trial Of Life Trials of Life Life is all about experiencing, learning, and growing up. The novel To Kill a Mockingbird written by Harper Lee shows many examples of growing up during the Great Depression. To Kill a Mockingbird is set in the South during the 1930�s. The novel is a summary of the lives of the Finch family and their learning experiences. Atticus Finch, a single parent and lawyer, informs and advises his kids as well as many others about the realities of life
Harper Lee
Harper Lee
Harper Lee Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926. She was the youngest of 3 children born to Amasa and Francis Finch Lee. She was born in Monroeville, Alabama. She attended local schools until 1944, at which time, she entered Huntington College in Montgomery, Alabama. She became a Fulbright Scholar and spent a year at Oxford University. She also attended University of Alabama for four years studying law. In 1950, she quit the school and moved to New York City where she worked for Eastern Airline
Lessons Never Learned
Lessons Never Learned
Lessons Never Learned By Michelle Dick Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mockingbird”, long considered an American classic, is as relevant to today’s society as it was when it was published almost 40 years ago. The novel is a comment on the origins and implications of prejudice. Prejudice is born of fear – the fear of what we do not understand. Told through the eyes of a child, “To Kill a Mockingbird” illustrates the logical shortcomings of judging people based on our fears. This point of view also clear
Prejudice has caused the pain and suffering of others for many
Prejudice has caused the pain and suffering of others for many
Prejudice has caused the pain and suffering of others for many centuries. Some examples of this include the Holocaust and slavery in the United States. In to Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee racism was the cause of much agony to the blacks of a segregated South. Along with blacks, other groups of people are judged unfairly just because of their difference from others. The prejudice and bigotry of society causes the victimization of people with differences. Some who are discriminated against ar
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, focuses on the relationship built between a brother and a sister in the small town of Maycomb, Alabama, in the 1930’s. Maycomb, like anyother southern town is full of gossip, tradition, and a legacy of racism. The traditional Southern racism of Maycomb is looked at through the eyes of a young narrator, Scout Finch. These questions are crucial in Scout’s search for her own identity. Scout must come to terms with the racism of her t
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird A Movie Review The film To Kill A Mockingbird is produced in 1964. The main actors in the film are as follows: Gregory Peck, Atticus Finch; Ms. Maudie Atkinson, Rosemary Murphy; Jean Louise ‘Scout' Finch, Mary Badham; Jeremy ‘Jem' Finch, Philip Afford; Arthur ‘Boo' Radley, Robert Duvall and Heck Tate, Brock Peters. The Music Director in the film is Elmer Bernstain, the Screenwriter is Horton Foote, and the script is an adaptation from the book, To Kill A Mockingbird, writt
Analysis of Atticus Finch
Analysis of Atticus Finch
Analysis of Atticus Finch Atticus Finch is a caring and interesting character in the book, To Kill a Mockingbird. He is the father of Jem(Jeremy) and Scout Finch. He seems to be a strong, but controlled man. Atticus’ wife died earlier and he is currently raising Jem and Scout with Calpurnia, the housekeeper. Atticus stands out in Maycomb because he is different from everyone else. He isn’t a racist and doesn’t care what other people think of him. He is educated, unlike many others, and is a law
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD by Harper Lee Quotes: Atticus...he was real nice... His hands were under my chin, pulling up the cover, tucking it around me. Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them. If there’s just one kind of folks, why can’t they get along with each other? If they’re all alike, why do they go out of they’re way to despise each other? A jury never looks at a defendant it had convicted, and not one of them looked at Tom Robinson. Gentlemen, a court is no better than each on
Racism in To Kill a Mockingbird
Racism in To Kill a Mockingbird
Racism in To Kill a Mockingbird In the novel To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee, the author, presents racism as a extensive problem in Maycomb. Although Maycomb is generally a small town, the town is full of citizens who love to gossip, and people who discriminate against others of different skin colors. This is evident through many circumstances during the novel. One good example of this reoccurring problem is the incident at Calpurnia’s church. When Calpurnia arrives accompanied by Jem and Scou
SCOUTS INNOCENCE
SCOUTS INNOCENCE
SCOUTS INNOCENCE In the story, To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee the time period in which the setting took place was in chaos. During those times, children especially absorb a lot of tension surrounding them or the community (i.e. racism, harassment, e.t.c). Scout, the main character stands as an innocent child in the judgmental town of Maycomb, Alabama. One reason Scout is innocent is that she tells Atticus what she and Jem do. She told Atticus about the items she and Jem found in the tree b
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD, HARPER LEE I read “To Kill a Mockingbird”. It is a fiction book about a lawyer who has to defend a black man on charge of rape in the 1930’s. It was written by Harper Lee. The main characters in my book was Atticus Finch, a lawyer; Scout Finch, Atticus’s daughter and the who is telling the story; Jean Finch, Scout’s brother; Dill, the boy who comes every summer and Tom Robinson, the black man who was accused of rape. The movie makes Scout really ugly, but when I was readi
The book To Kill a Mockingbird is a timeless classic written by Harper
The book To Kill a Mockingbird is a timeless classic written by Harper
The book, To Kill a Mockingbird, is a timeless classic written by Harper Lee that shows some pessimistic views but ends as an optimistic ending. I will now show some of these views and compare them to reality. The first topic I would like to bring up is that the setting of the story already starts out in a pessimistic mood. It takes place during the depression, where the people in Maycomb are poor. Not only being poor, the white people of the town are very racial and aren't afraid of hiding it.
SYMBOLISM ON HARPER LEES
SYMBOLISM ON HARPER LEES
SYMBOLISM ON HARPER LEE’S TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD I'd rather you shoot at tin cans in the backyard, but I know you'll go after birds. Shoot all the bluejays you want, if you can hit 'em, but remember it's a sin to kill a mockingbird. This is what Atticus Finch tells his children after they are given air rifles for Christmas. Uniquely, the title of the classic novel by Harper Lee, To Kill A Mockingbird, was taken from this passage. At first glance, one may wonder why Harper Lee decided to name h
Tom Robinson was a young black man who kept to himself He was a very
Tom Robinson was a young black man who kept to himself He was a very
Tom Robinson was a young black man who kept to himself. He was a very private man , yet he didn’t cause any problems. He would have been accepted, no doubt, except for the fact that he was black. The color of Tom’s skin made his life a living hell. He was persecuted by many people. Bob Ewell accuses Tom of the rape of his daughter, Mayella. Bob is a white man with a drinking problem who takes his anger out on his daughter by physically abusing her. Bob accuses Tom of raping Mayella in hopes of
The fact that Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird takes place around th
The fact that Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird takes place around th
The fact that Harper Lee's, To Kill a Mockingbird, takes place around the mid-1900s sets up a realistic background for the racial events that occur in the story. Throughout the novel, there is a definite tension to be recognized among different classes and cultures of people. Since the main character, Scout Finch, has a father who is directly amidst this tension and aggression because of his profession, she is forced to accept reality and mature faster than may have otherwise been necessary. Tr