Gamma Rays The

Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand. He was educated at the University of New Zealand and the University of Cambridge. He was a professor of physics at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec from 1989 to 1907. He was also professor at the University of Manchester in England. After 1919 he was professor of experimental physics and director of the Cavendish Lab at the University of Cambridge moreover held a professorship, after 1920, at the Royal Instit
Black Holes
Black Holes
Black Holes Table of Contents I. What are black holes? II. Where do they come from? III. Interesting facts about black holes. IV. How are they discovered? A. X-ray Emissions B. Exotic Energy Sources C. Star speeds D. Masers E. The Baseline Array F. Hubble Telescope G. Satellites V. Quasi-Stellar Relations VI. Locations A. M87 B. Milky Way C. Andromeda D. ?????? E. NGC 6240 F. A0620-00 What are black holes? Black holes are the remains of a massive star that has collapsed and shrunk to a tiny poi
Neutrinos and Gamma Rays
Neutrinos and Gamma Rays
Neutrinos and Gamma Rays Emission of a beta particle produces an energy change in the nucleus of an atom. The energy change that is observed, however, does not add up to satisfy the Law of Conservation of energy. The conservation law can be balanced if another particle, called the neutrino is part of this process. In the time it takes to read just this sentence, more than a billion of them will have passed unnoticed through the reader's body. Neutrinos may account for an appreciable portion of
Anti matter summary
Anti matter summary
anti-matter summary Anti-Matter Summary Introduction Ordinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei. Anti-matter has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons. Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time, but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element  Anti-Hydrogen.The Research Ea
Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg One cannot fully appreciate the work of Werner Heisenberg unless one examines his contributions in the context of the time in which he lived. Werner Karl Heisenberg was born in Wuerzburg, Germany, on December 5, 1901, and grew up in academic surroundings, in a household devoted to the humanities. His father was a professor at the University of Munich and undoubtedly greatly influenced young Werner, who was a student at the Maximilian Gymnasium. Heisenberg had the opportunity t
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power Most of the world's electricity is generated by either thermal or hydroelectric power plants. Thermal power plants use fuel to boil water which makes steam. The steam turns turbines that generate electricity. Hydroelectric power plants use the great force of rushing water from a dam or a waterfall to turn the turbines. The majority of thermal power plants burn fossil fuels because thermal power plants are cheaper to maintain and have to meet less of the governments requirements co
Modern Vs. Ancient
Modern Vs. Ancient
Modern Vs. Ancient We saw her lying: she had made a noose of her fine linen veil and hanged herself. Haimon lay beside her, his love lost under ground, crying out that his father had stolen her away from him. Throughout history plays have evolved in many ways. For example, the theaters where they hold plays have changed drastically from the original theater. Costumes are another item that has changed, but the content of the play has always been similar, ever since they created the very first
Modern Vs Ancient
Modern Vs Ancient
Modern Vs. Ancient We saw her lying: she had made a noose of her fine linen veil and hanged herself. Haimon lay beside her, his love lost under ground, crying out that his father had stolen her away from him. Throughout history plays have evolved in many ways. For example, the theaters where they hold plays have changed drastically from the original theater. Costumes are another item that has changed, but the content of the play has always been similar, ever since they created the very first
Nuclear Weapons explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy o
Nuclear Weapons explosive devices designed to release nuclear energy o
Nuclear Weapons, explosive devices, designed to release nuclear energy on a large scale, used primarily in military applications. The first atomic bomb (or A-bomb), which was tested on July 16, 1945, at Alamogordo, New Mexico, represented a completely new type of artificial explosive. All explosives prior to that time derived their power from the rapid burning or decomposition of some chemical compound. Such chemical processes release only the energy of the outermost electrons in the atom. See
Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear Weapons Chemistry CP 4/7/02 A nuclear weapon is any type of weapon that explodes because of the transformation of matter in atoms into energy. There are two types of nuclear weapons, fission weapons, which are known as atomic weapons and thermonuclear weapons, which are commonly called hydrogen or fusion weapons. In fission weapons, matter is changed into energy when uranium isotopes U-235, U-238, or the plutonium isotope Pu-239 are split. Once the nucleus splits, the little matter is ma
The Sun A Solar Flare is a rapid release of energy from a localized re
The Sun A Solar Flare is a rapid release of energy from a localized re
The Sun A Solar Flare is a rapid release of energy from a localized region on the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation, energetic particles, and mass motions. The size of a solar flare varies. One flare can be the size of a sunspot or the size of a whole sunspot group. It usually has a temperature similar to that of the sun's photosphere. The amount of time it takes for a flare to last varies directly with its size. The smaller flares last for approximately ten minutes. Larger flares can
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power Most of the world’s electricity is generated by either thermal or hydroelectric power plants. Thermal power plants use fuel to boil waterwhich makes steam. The steam turns turbines that generate electricity.Hydroelectric power plants use the great force of rushing water from a dam or a waterfall to turn the turbines. The majority of thermal power plants burn fossil fuels because thermal power plants are cheaper to maintain and have to meet less of the governments requirements compa
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy by definition is the energy consumed or produced in modifying the composition of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear energy is used for things such as atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs and other nuclear weapons. Nuclear energy can also be used for powering electricity-generating plants all over the world. There are many arguments for and against nuclear power. Nuclear power is an inexpensive clean source of power. Others feel that because of the hazardous radiation emitted durin
Nuclear Particle Physics
Nuclear Particle Physics
Nuclear / Particle Physics Effects of the Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Ever since the dawn of time man has found new ways of killing each other. The most destructive way of killing people known to man would have to be the atomic bomb. The reason why the atomic bomb is so destructive is that when it is detonated, it has more than one effect. The effects of the atomic bomb are so great that Nikita Khrushchev said that the survivors would envy the dead (International Physicians for the Pr
A Nuclear Reactor
A Nuclear Reactor
A Nuclear Reactor The term Nuclear Reactor means an interaction between two or more Nuclei, Nuclear Particles, or Radiation, possibly causing transformation of the nuclear type; includes, for example, fission, capture, elastic container. Reactor means the core and its immediate container. Nuclear Reactors are used to produce electricity . The numbers of Nuclear Reactor plants have grown sufficiently . Electricity is being generated in a number of ways, it can be generated by using Thermal Power.
Cancer is the 1 killer in America It is a group of more than 100 diffe
Cancer is the 1 killer in America It is a group of more than 100 diffe
Cancer is the #1 killer in America. It is a group of more than 100 different diseases characterized by the abnormal growth of altered body cells. The cells grow out of control and throughout the body. Cancer affects many lives. 50% of American men and 33% of American women will have some form of cancer sometime during his or her lifetime. Fortunately there are cures available. Unfortunately, they don't always work. In the following paragraphs I will explain more about this deadly disease. Almos
How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half A Greek philosopher
How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half A Greek philosopher
How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half? A Greek philosopher named Democritus was the first in a long line of scientists and mathematicians to try to answer this very difficult question. Around 450 BC, Democritus stated that all mater was composed of particles that he called atomos (where the English word atom comes from) and that these particles could not be cut. This went against the present day theory of Aristotle which was that matter could be cut infinitely. Unfortunately for De
Some supposed UFO sightings have been accompanied by unexplained physi
Some supposed UFO sightings have been accompanied by unexplained physi
Some supposed UFO sightings have been accompanied by unexplained physical evidence that deserves serious scientific study, an international panel of scientists has concluded. In the first independent scientific review of the controversial topic in almost 30 years, directed by physicist Peter Sturrock of Stanford University, the panel emphasized that it had found no convincing evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence or any violation of natural laws. But the panel cited cases that included intr
Physics ISU
Physics ISU
Physics ISU (a) Cathode Rays are invisible particles that are emitted from the cathode (negative end) and travel to the anode (positive end). These rays are called cathode rays because they originated from the cathode. They travel in a straight lines, possess kinetic energy (which means that they mush have some mass) they are high speed, negatively charged electrons. (b) An Electron Gun is something that 'boils' out electrons at a high temperature from the cathode and they are accelerated tow
Radon
Radon
Radon In this paper I will discuss the element called Radon. I will explain how and when this element was discovered, its' physical characteristics, the natural environment of the element and the abundance in which it occurs. In addition, I will describe why Radon is important to humans, and other interesting facts related to this element. Radon has the symbol Rn. Its atomic number is 86 and its atomic weight is 222. The shell configuration is 2,8,18,32,18,8. Radon's most stable isotope is Rn 2
Left Out in the Cold
Left Out in the Cold
Left Out in the Cold Cold fusion maybe the answer to the energy crisis of the world At the moment, the academic world does not believe that it exists but that hasn't stopped a number of scientists claiming they have made the biggest break through since the discovery fire. Cold fusion is the name of a nuclear process which, it is claimed, creates huge amounts of energy using very little fuel and causes no pollution. In short, it is the perfect way to create almost limitless amounts of electricit
Radioactivity and Types of
Radioactivity and Types of
Radioactivity and Types of Radiation Henri Becquerel Henri Becquerel was a french scientist who discovered radioactivity. Becquerel knew that florescent screens in cathode ray tubes did not only glow when struck by electrons, but also emitted X-rays. Since certain minerals like uranium would glow when illuminated by sunlight, Becquerel thought that they too might be able to emit X-rays when fluorescing. The Experiment Becquerel first wrapped a photographic plate with black paper to prevent expo
Nuclear chemistry creates many different phenomena that interest chemi
Nuclear chemistry creates many different phenomena that interest chemi
Nuclear chemistry creates many different phenomena that interest chemists, from the new chemical tools they provide to the subtle changes in chemical behaviors because of the differences in the nuclei. Nuclear chemists focus mainly on the differences and similarities of an elements isotopes, weather they are stable or radioactive isotopes. But what is nuclear chemistry? We will explore that in this paper, starting with atomic structure: what is an atom make up of, Quantum mechanics, probability
How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half A Greek philosopher
How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half A Greek philosopher
How many times can one cut a piece of gold in half? A Greek philosopher named Democritus was the first in a long line of scientists and mathematicians to try to answer this very difficult question. Around 450 BC, Democritus stated that all mater was composed of particles that he called atomos (where the English word atom comes from) and that these particles could not be cut. This went against the present day theory of Aristotle which was that matter could be cut infinitely. Unfortunately for Dem
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the firsts to speculate on the composition of matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances dur
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is made up of six different types of waves. Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared waves, Visible light, Ultraviolet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. The radio waves are used to transmit radio and television signals. The infrared waves are used to tell temperature of areas. Visible light is all the colors that we can see. Ultraviolet light can help things grow but to much can cause diseases such as skin cancer. X-rays are used as a tool to find broke
Radiology
Radiology
Radiology Humanity, constantly learning, growing, and facing more challenges each second of the day. Whether the challenges are mental or purely physical. We have found more efficient, safer, and easier ways of doing the tasks we may face. From moving cargo, to sending information via the Internet. Probably the greatest accomplishments we have made, are in the studies of medicine/treatment. And to be specific, the study of radiology. Radiology, the process of working and viewing inside the human
Fusion
Fusion
Fusion For centuries, humankind has looked at the stars, and for just as many years humankind has tried to explain the existence of those very same stars. Were they holes in an enormous canvas that covered the earth? Were they fire-flies that could only be seen when the Apollo had parked his chariot for the night? There seemed to be as many explanations for the stars as there were stars themselves. Then one day an individual named Galileo Galilei made an astounding discovery: the stars were repl
Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down Gamma Rays are produced in labs
Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down Gamma Rays are produced in labs
Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down. Gamma Rays are produced in labs Gamma Rays are Waves on the electromagnetic Spectrum that have a Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down. Gamma Rays are produced in labs through the process of nuclear collision and also through the artificial Radioactivity that accompanies these interactions. The high energy nuclei needed for the collisions are accelerated by such devices such as the Cyclotron and synchrotron. There are also many uses for Gamma rays in Medi
Food Processing
Food Processing
Food Processing Throughout the history of mankind science has searched into the realms of the unknown. Along with it bringing new discoveries, allowing for our lives to become healthier, more efficient, safer, and at the same time, possibly more dangerous. Among the forces driving scientists into these many experiments, is the desire to preserve the one fuel that keeps our lives going; FOOD. As early as the beginning of the 19th century, major breakthroughs in food preservation had begun. Soldie
The Geiger-Muller Tube
The Geiger-Muller Tube
The Geiger-Muller Tube In the Geiger-Muller tube, particles ionize gas atoms. The tube contains a gas at low pressure. At one end of the tube is a very thin ”window” through which charged particles or gamma rays pass. Inside the tube is a copper cylinder with a negative charge. A rigid wire with a positive charge runs down the center of this cylinder. The voltage across the wire and cylinder is kept just below the point at which a spontaneous discharge, or spark, occurs. When a charged particle
The Laser
The Laser
The Laser Before we can learn about the laser we need to know a little bit about light (since that is what a laser is made of). Light from our sun, or from an electric bulb, is called white light. It is really a mixture of all the different colours of light. The colours range from violet, indigo, and blue, to green, yellow, orange, and red. These make up the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Light is made up of particles, called PHOTONS, which travel in waves. The difference in the c
Radio A Form of Communication
Radio A Form of Communication
Radio: A Form of Communication Physics Idoh Gersten Mr. Zambizi Physics March 12, 1995 Radio is a form of communication in which intelligence is transmitted without wires from one point to another by means of electromagnetic waves. Early forms of communication over great distances were the telephone and the telegraph. They required wires between the sender and receiver. Radio, on the other hand, requires no such physical connection. It relies on the radiation of energy from a transmitting antenn
Ebola Virus
Ebola Virus
Ebola Virus With a ninety percent mortality rate, high mutation capability, and opportunities for genetic re-assortment Ebola Zaire is one of the most deadly and unforgiving viruses in the known world. A new family of viruses termed filoviruses, was first discovered in 1967 Marburg W. Germany. Ebola Zaire was first isolated in 1976 at Center of Disease Control, Porton Down in the UK, and at the Institute for Tropical Diseases in Antwerp, Belgium. Immunological uniqueness was found in the laborat
Historical Development of Atomic Structure
Historical Development of Atomic Structure
Historical Development of Atomic Structure Yazan Fahmawi Sept. 30, 1995 T3 IBS Chemistry Ms. Redman The idea behind the atom goes back to the Ancient Greek society, where scientists believed that all matter was made of smaller, more fundamental particles called elements. They called these particles atoms, meaning not divisible. Then came the chemists and physicists of the 16th and 17th centuries who discovered various formulae of various salts and water, hence discovering the idea of a molec
Technetium
Technetium
Technetium Nalin Balan NUCL 200 Paper due 02/07/97 Atomic Number: 43 Atomic Symbol: Tc Atomic Weight: (97) Electron Configuration: -18-13-2 History, Properties and Uses: (Gr. technetos, artificial) Element 43 was predicted on the basis of the periodi c table, and was erroneously reported as having been discovered in 1925, at which time it was named masurium. The element was actually discovered by Perrier and Segre in Italy in 1937. It was found in a sample of molybdenum, which was bombarded by d
Antimmatter
Antimmatter
Antimmatter Really long Physics paper We stand at the base of a new age. We are just now beginning to learn the intricate details of life, both macroscopic and microscopic. Ultimately these discoveries will benefit all of mankind. Never before have we enjoyed such a golden age for science and discovery. The scientific horizon looks fruitful. One such fruit is the discovery and application of a thing called antimatter. During the next few decades our ability to produce, accumulate, and contain la
Lead
Lead
Lead Lead is a lustrous, silvery metal that tarnishes in the presence of air and becomes a dull bluish gray. Soft and flexible, it has a low melting point (327 C). Its chemical symbol, Pb, is from plumbum, the Latin word for waterworks, because of lead's extensive use in ancient water pipes. Itsatomic number is 82; its atomic weight is 207.19. Lead and lead compounds can be highly toxic when eaten or inhaled. Although lead is absorbed very slowly into the body, its rate of excretion is even slow
Low level waste
Low level waste
Low level waste Low-level Waste facility Nuclear Fusion, a process in which two light nuclei combine to form a single heavier nucleus. An example of this is the sunrays they are the simplest form of nuclear fusion. The use for this is fusion is used as a fuel. But the risks are radiation poising which is very deadly. Nuclear fission, a reverse process of fusion. So it’s a process in which a heavy nucleus splits in to two smaller nuclei. The simplest form is particles going into are atmosphere fr
Cancer The Costs Causes And Cures
Cancer The Costs Causes And Cures
Cancer: The Costs, Causes, And Cures Cancer: The Costs, Causes, and Cures Cancer is a major killer of people all around the globe. We do not have a definite cure, but the amount of research done on this one disease costs on the average of $1.2 billion dollars annually, and $20 billion annually in care of cancer patients. What is Cancer? Cancer is a broad ranging term that is used by many people, including medical professionals such as doctors. Cancer, in its most fatal and aggressive form, is of
Cfcs Cause Deterioration Of The Ozone Layer
Cfcs Cause Deterioration Of The Ozone Layer
Cfcs Cause Deterioration Of The Ozone Layer Cfcs Cause Deterioration of the Ozone Layer The deterioration of the ozone layer , caused by Cfcs, endangers the lives of humans'. Cfcs have a diminishing effect on the ozone layer. Furthermore, the deterioration of the ozone cause an increase of Ultraviolet (UV) radiation which can have a negative effect on human skin and eyes. As a writer for newsweek, I have investigated the scenario and found the following information. The earth's atmosphere is a b
Mike Zevoteck
Mike Zevoteck
Mike Zevoteck Psych of Aging Cancer and its Treatments Cancer is a major killer of people all around the globe. We do not have a definite cure, but the amount of research done on this one disease costs on the average of $1.2 billion dollars annually, and $20 billion annually in care of cancer patients. What is Cancer? Cancer is a broad ranging term that is used by many people, including medical professionals such as doctors. Cancer, in its most fatal and aggressive form, is of a larger class of