Cognition

Chimpanzees
Chimpanzees
Chimpanzees A new study has shown that chimpanzees may be able to determine whether their partners know they are in danger. This suggests that these primates are able to decide how ignorant or informed their peers are about an unexpected situation. The finding, made by a team of researchers at Ohio State University's Comparative Cognition Project, suggests that chimps share with humans the ability to perceive the knowledge state of a peer, and perhaps the intention to protect that peer. Earlier
Mill and Kants theories
Mill and Kants theories
Mill and Kants theories Get Essays - Essay Search - Submit Essays - Request Essays - Essay Links - FAQ Compare Mill and Kant's ethical theories; which makes a better societal order? John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved. However, good is a relative term. What is good? Utilitarians disa
The Mind Music and Behavior
The Mind Music and Behavior
The Mind, Music, and Behavior abstract The main purpose of the paper is to investigate and present the relationship between the mind, music, and human behavior. For this purpose, research is presented on previous works and studies that link music with the mind. Based on this research, music increases neurotransmitter levels. Soft or mellow music has a tendency to promote tranquillity, while music with tempo sometimes distracts. Human memories can be cued by music, and music can promote improved
During the 1920s a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of co
During the 1920s a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of co
During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children. He caused a new revolution in thinking about how thinking develops. In 1984, Piaget observed that children understand concepts and reason differently at different stages. Piaget stated children's cognitive strategies which are used to solve problems, reflect an interaction BETWEEN THE CHILD'S CURRENT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE AND experience in the world. Research on cognitive development has provid
Television is a pervasive and complex part of childrens lives there ar
Television is a pervasive and complex part of childrens lives there ar
Television is a pervasive and complex part of children’s lives, there are many factors that affect how much and what they view. In the essay “Teaching as an Amusing Activity” (1987), Neil Postman argues television conditions us to tolerate visually entertaining material measured out in chunks at a time. He explains the ways in which the media is changing the way our children are learning. Neil Postman starts off by explaining how television is being used as an attractive and seductive medium to
Dementia What is Dementia Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which
Dementia What is Dementia Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which
Dementia What is Dementia ? Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the m
ATTACKS ON THE INSANITY DEFENSE The insanity defense refers to that br
ATTACKS ON THE INSANITY DEFENSE The insanity defense refers to that br
ATTACKS ON THE INSANITY DEFENSE The insanity defense refers to that branch of the concept of insanity which defines the extent to which men accused of crimes may be relieved of criminal responsibility by virtue of mental disease. The terms of such a defense are to be found in the instructions presented by the trial judge to the jury at the close of a case. These instructions can be drawn from any of several rules used in the determination of mental illness. The final determination of mental ill
Theories Underlying the Constructivist Approach
Theories Underlying the Constructivist Approach
Theories Underlying the Constructivist Approach Introduction According to Elliot Eisner: “teaching is an art and the creations of the teacher in producing an engaging stimulating and insightful lesson are the result of using many different skills but these are influenced by qualities and contingencies that are unpredictable’ but all teachers do operate with theory where theory is ‘a general set of ideas through which we make sense of the world” And according to Peel (1967): “psychology may be de
Edgar Allan Poe A Man of Secrecy
Edgar Allan Poe A Man of Secrecy
Edgar Allan Poe: A Man of Secrecy Edgar Allan Poe was born on January 19, 1809 as Edgar Poe. He was the second son to Elizabeth Arnold Poe and David Poe. Both parents were actors, and shortly after Poe’s birth, his father deserted his family around 1810. Edgar became an orphan before the age of three years, when his mother died on December 8, 1811 in Richmond, Virginia at the age of twenty-four years. His father died at the age of twenty-seven years old. After his mother’s death, the childless c
Semiotics Language and Culture
Semiotics Language and Culture
Semiotics: Language and Culture Linguistic and Cultural Semiotics is a branch of communication theory that investigates sign systems and the modes of representation that humans use to convey feelings, thoughts, ideas, and ideologies. Semiotic analysis is rarely considered a field of study in its own right, but is used in a broad range of disciplines, including art, literature, anthropology, sociology, and the mass media. Semiotic analysis looks for the cultural and psychological patterns that un
Human Memory Cognition
Human Memory Cognition
Human Memory Cognition What is memory? Apologies for commencing with a naively under-estimated question likened to that asked by a small child or perhaps a tiresome teenager. However, in this case, to ask such a question will not result in futility or a slammed door. The point here is to illustrate that the existence of memory has far more widely reaching implications than the lay person might at first suspect. Without memory there would be no past. There would be no ability to employ previously
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant LTWR 300A Wednesday 4pm Immanuel Kant said that, besides the usual forms of knowledge - analytical knowledge and empirical knowledge - we also have a priori knowledge that is 'synthetic' in the sense that it tells us something about the world. He applied this general theory to art by saying that in art we see beauty that we recognise through our a priori knowledge of beauty. The possibility of such knowledge is easily disproved, following David Hume's argument, which Kant knew of.
Video Games and Their Psychological Effects
Video Games and Their Psychological Effects
Video Games and Their Psychological Effects Each week people throughout the world spend millions of hours playing video games. Is this part of the problem with society today, or is it a new and positive form of entertainment? Since the early 1980’s people have been questioning the negative side effects of video games. Extremists are shouting that it is corrupting children by teaching violence. They have a good point when looking at notoriously violent games like Grand Theft Auto. On the other ha
Dreams
Dreams
Dreams Dreams have been objects of boundless fascination and mystery for humankind since the beginning of time. These nocturnal vivid images seem to arise from some source other than our ordinary conscious mind. They contain a mixture of elements from our own personal identity, which we recognize as familiar along with a quality of `others' in the dream images that carries a sense of the strange and eerie. The ancients thought that dreams were messages from the gods. The bizarre and nonsensical
Freud
Freud
Freud He is peeping through a small hole, from which a light comes out and shows his expression. Is it an expression of pleasure? No, it looks like pain he feels. But his eyes are looking so lusty in desire, he is masturbating. I have never seen an expression like this, he is both taking sexual pleasure and feeling a deep pain, plus he seems to be afraid of a mother who might catch him masturbating; he is in such a hurry. But that’s ridiculous, he is a grown up, why would a man be afraid of his
ComputerIts Effect on Childrens Learning and Development Psychology 2
ComputerIts Effect on Childrens Learning and Development Psychology 2
Computer—Its Effect on Children’s Learning and Development Psychology 2 Dec 1st, 2001 The role of computers’ effect on childhood education has been a widely controversial topic for decades, and both parents and educators have concerns about the potential benefits or harms to young children. Critics argue that introducing technologies in schools will only waste time, money and childhood development itself by speeding up the pace and cutting down on essential learning experiences that children mus
The Self Unitary or Multiple
The Self Unitary or Multiple
The Self: Unitary or Multiple? The self, as a concept is one of the oldest and most persistently researched parts of social psychology. At the beginning of the twentieth century William James put down the framework for many of today’s principal issues. With expert research into the fundamentals of what goes into creating ‘the self’ James argued that it was through our “emotional identification” with them that made them part of “me” (as cited in Franzoi 1996). Many other psychologists have studie
Teaching Mathematics
Teaching Mathematics
Teaching Mathematics An introduction to Formulas, concepts and ideas in Math education. Practical theoretical concepts visualized at 6th – 7th grade level (DNS 2001) Index I. Introduction The importance of math education lies in the simple fact that all we see around us can be explained or understood with the help of math, mathematical formula’s and mathematical models. Relating the abstract concepts of mathematical formulas and models to real life represents a bigger challenge then the aforemen
Perspectives on Changes in Adulthood 1
Perspectives on Changes in Adulthood 1
Perspectives on Changes in Adulthood 1 Perspectives on Changes in Adulthood Adult and Family Development BSHS 380i 1.0 Date: October 21, 2002 Perspectives on Changes in Adulthood 2 Elizabeth Drew once stated, The world is not run by thought, nor by imagination, but by opinion, And I can see what she was saying. In this day in age, we have to be very careful to what we state as an opinion because you never know who you might be offending. Emotions are part of a management system to coordinate eac
While examining different religious paths within Hinduism from the per
While examining different religious paths within Hinduism from the per
While examining different religious paths within Hinduism from the perspective of four patterns of transcendence (ancestral, cultural, mythical and experiential) it is interesting to see how each pattern found its dominance over four segments of Hinduism: Vedic sacrifice, the way of action, the way of devotion and the way of knowledge. When Hinduism originated as a religion it was mainly concerned with sacrifices for ancestors. The sacred texts - called the Vedas - on which Hinduism was based we
Dreams have been objects of boundless fascination and mystery for huma
Dreams have been objects of boundless fascination and mystery for huma
Dreams have been objects of boundless fascination and mystery for humankind since the beginning of time. These nocturnal vivid images seem to arise from some source other than our ordinary conscious mind. They contain a mixture of elements from our own personal identity which we recognize as familiar along with a quality of `otherness' in the dream images that carries a sense of the strange and eerie. The bizarre and nonsensical characters and plots in dreams point to deeper meanings and contai
Computer Science
Computer Science
Computer Science Study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers—devices that automatically process information. Computer science traces its roots to work done by English mathematician Charles Babbage, who first proposed a programmable mechanical calculator in 1837. Until the advent of electronic digital computers in the 1940s, computer science was not generally distinguished as being separate from mathematics and engineering. Since
SENILITY
SENILITY
SENILITY Senility is a disease commonly referred to as dementia. It affects 4 million Americans every year and is a major cause of disability in old age (Bunch, 1997, p. 106). Its prevalence increases with age (Bunch, 1997, p. 106). Dementia is characterized by a permanent memory deficit affecting recent memory in particular and of sufficient severity to interfere with the patient's ability to take part in professional and social activities (Bunch, 1997, p. 106). Although the aging process is a
Outline
Outline
Outline I. Weight and Body Image II. General Overview of Eating disorders III. Maladaptive Eating Attitudes, Behaviors, and Cognition's IV. Signs/ Symptoms V. Treatment Eating Disorders Eating disorders are multifaceted behavior problems that require comprehensive, multidimensional assessment. Not suprisingly, the literature devoted to the assessment of eating disorders has expanded dramatically in recent years. In addition to the proliferation of new self-report measures and the revision of se
EMANUEL KAKAOUNAKIS
EMANUEL KAKAOUNAKIS
EMANUEL KAKAOUNAKIS CHAPTER 7 COGNITION & LANGUAGE HUBBLE TELESCOPE -PROBLEM SOLVING -COGNITION PSYCHOLOGY -COGNITION -THINKING & REASONING -LANGUAGE THINKING -ONLY HUMANS CAN CONTEMPLATE, ANALYZE, RECOLLECT OR PLAN -THINKING= THE MANIPULATION OF MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF INFO -REPRESENTATION= WORD, VISUAL IMAGE, SOUND OR OTHER DATA -REPRESENTATIONS TRANSFORM INTO A DIFFERENT FORM TO ALLOW PROBLEM SOLVING -WE DO NOT REALLY KNOW HOW THIS HAPPENS -WE DO UNDERSTAND FUNDEMENTAL ELEMENTS MENTAL IMAGE
Ayn Rand and Objectivism An Introduction
Ayn Rand and Objectivism An Introduction
Ayn Rand and Objectivism: An Introduction opinions and beliefs, but he finally accepts that they will not leave his mind and his destiny is sealed. In his recognition of his core belief (individual freedom), he knows that he cannot resist this immutable freedom. Briefly, this sentence is the summary of man's existence. Man knows he is selfish and those who allow self-interest permeate their being are often called greedy or evil. However, without selfishness, man is reduced from an advanced mind
True and False
True and False
True and False True and False seem to be such clear and simple terms, opposites and mutually exclusive. In reality, however we may inhabit, in much or even most of our knowledge the fuzzy area in between the two. Discuss the difficulties of attempts to draw a clear line between the two categories in at least two areas of knowledge. The question of the definition of true and false has for centuries of western civilization baffled the greatest of philosophers. The question being not just simply th
Patient Classification Systems
Patient Classification Systems
Patient Classification Systems ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The development of patient classification systems (PCS) in fields other than acute medicine raises the question if the principle of using existing data (i.e. diagnoses; procedures where available) is sufficent to describe the products of hospital care. METHODS/MATERIAL: The essence of a PCS (type iso-cost) is to estimate costs of treatment needed in a defined setting by means of a description of the patient status (conditions) and the treat
The Price of Universals
The Price of Universals
The Price of Universals Skot Crass Metaphysics In H.H. Price's work Universals and Resemblances he gives us two possible approaches to the ontological problem of universals: the Philosophy of Universals and the Philosophy of resemblances, both of which I shall approach shortly. However, it seems interesting that Price has neglected Plato's doctrine of universalia ante rem due to the thought that no one is willing to accept the idea of Plato's transcendental realm of forms. Additionally he has ma
ATTACKS ON THE INSANITY DEFENSE
ATTACKS ON THE INSANITY DEFENSE
ATTACKS ON THE INSANITY DEFENSE The insanity defense refers to that branch of the concept of insanity which defines the extent to which men accused of crimes may be relieved of criminal responsibility by virtue of mental disease. The terms of such a defense are to be found in the instructions presented by the trial judge to the jury at the close of a case. These instructions can be drawn from any of several rules used in the determination of mental illness. The final determination of mental illn
Critically Evaluate The Cognitive Theory Of Stereotyping
Critically Evaluate The Cognitive Theory Of Stereotyping
Critically Evaluate The Cognitive Theory Of Stereotyping. Critically evaluate the cognitive theory of stereotyping. B231: Social Interaction, Exam Paper 1998, Question 4. Graeme Gordon Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is as prevalent in today's society as it was 2000 years ago. It is a social attitude that has stood the test of time and received much attention by social psychologists and philosophers alike. Many approaches to, or theories of stereotyping have thus been raised. This e
Mind And Machine
Mind And Machine
Mind And Machine Mind and Machine: The Essay Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and
Neuropsychologist
Neuropsychologist
Neuropsychologist A neuropsychologist is a psychologist who specializes in studying brain behavior relationships. Neuropsychologists have extensive training in the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the nervous system. Some neuropsychologists specialize in research while other neuropsychologists specialize in evaluating and treating people who are thought to have something wrong with the way in which their nervous system is functioning. Neuropsychologists study brain behavior relationships un
Subliminal Messaging
Subliminal Messaging
Subliminal Messaging subliminal messaging Subliminal Messages in Advertising: The Case For and Against Lisa Caswell Syracuse University Running Head: Subliminal Messages Subliminal messaging and subliminal perception are controversial topics in the field of psychology. Many studies have been conducted to determine if subliminal messaging does in fact work. Many people think that subliminal messages in the field of advertising are much more successful than subliminal messages for self-improvement
Subliminal Messages
Subliminal Messages
Subliminal Messages Subliminal Messages in Advertising: The Case For and Against Lisa Caswell Syracuse University Running Head: Subliminal Messages Subliminal messaging and subliminal perception are controversial topics in the field of psychology. Many studies have been conducted to determine if subliminal messaging does in fact work. Many people think that subliminal messages in the field of advertising are much more successful than subliminal messages for self-improvement, such as tapes sold t
Technology
Technology
Technology Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and the possibilities of consciousness
Political Communication
Political Communication
Political Communication Politics and the media have long been intimately involved with each other, with media strongly setting an agenda in which politics is very important. (Harris 1999,p.167) “Our perceived reality of the real world is largely a product of the media.” (Harris 1999,p.186) It is not known which influences more but there are definitely two sides to the story. Many studies have been done to decide but each comes out with different answers. Many say that the media has more of an im
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance How do human beings make decisions? What triggers a person to take action at any given point? These are all questions that I will attempt to answer with my theoretical research into Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance, as well as many of the other related theories. We often do not realize the psychological events that take place in our everyday lives. It is important to take notice of theories, such as the balance theory, the congruency theory and the cognitive d
Lucid Dreams The First Virtual Reality
Lucid Dreams The First Virtual Reality
Lucid Dreams: The First Virtual Reality Psychological Sean Pasinsky LibEd 316-2 5 Feb. 1997 For ages people have thought of dreams as curses or blessings that we could not prevent nor manipulate. This place called our dreams has constantly puzzled us, because it is here where all things are possible and seem to occur. In our dreams we perform superhuman and wonderful feats that would normally be impossible in the awake world. We find the men or women of our dreams, depending on our sexual or
Teens and Smoking
Teens and Smoking
Teens and Smoking Abstract Cigarette smoking is of interest to the National Institute on Drug Abuse both because of the public health problems associated with this form of substance abuse and because this behavior represents a prototypic dependence process. In the past few years the government has made every effort to reach the masses, in an attempt to curb the exploitation of tobbacco use, and its acceptance among Americas Youngsters. However, cigarette smoking among adolescents is on the rise.
The Buddha's Four Noble Truths A Logical Basis for Philosophy
The Buddha's Four Noble Truths A Logical Basis for Philosophy
The Buddha's Four Noble Truths: A Logical Basis for Philosophy The Buddha Shakyamuni was born in the 6th century BCE in the area presently known as Nepal. During his 80 year lifetime, he systematically developed a pragmatic, empirically based philosophy which he claimed would lead its followers towards an enlightened existence. Buddhism is commonly called a religion; however, it differs from the usual definition of a religion in that it has no deities, does not promote worship of demigods, and i
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance Theory The theory of Cognitive Dissonance states that when individuals are presented with information that implies we act in a way that contradicts our moral standards, we experience discomfort (Aronson, Wilson, and Akert, 1998, P. 191). This is considered Cognitive Dissonance, A psychological term used to describe mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information; arouses unease or tension; relieved by one of several defensive maneu
Mental Rotation Of Images
Mental Rotation Of Images
Mental Rotation Of Images Abstract The idea of mental imagery has always been a controversial subject in the field of psychology. Many psychologists have argued that such a concept is impossible to measure because it can not be directly observed. Though they are right about this, it is not impossible to measure how quickly mental rotations of images are processed in our brains. Subjects in this experiment were presented two shapes simultaneously, via computer screen, and asked to make judgement,
Can Computers understand
Can Computers understand
Can Computers understand? 1) Thinking is the hallmark of understanding. 2) Only special machines can think. 3) If something can think it can understand. 4) Only special machines that can think can understand. 5) Mental states and their resulting actions are products of the center of activity (brain). 6) To understand, thoughts must be produced by the brain. 7) A computer's mental states and events are controlled by a program. 8) The program is not a product of the computer. 9) A computer does
Practical Cognition
Practical Cognition
Practical Cognition Theories of Knowledge (Karl Marx) In his early years of writing, Karl Marx's ideas were similar to American Pragmatism, especially his ideas about epistemology. He defines truth in a pragmatic fashion and explains cognition in terms of practical needs of the human being. While some of his ideas were not followed to their logical conclusion, nor made sense, the fundamentals of his epistemology contain valuable ideas which can be viewed as furthering pragmatism as a respectable
Human Perception An Intimate Look Into The Most Intriguing Aspect of M
Human Perception An Intimate Look Into The Most Intriguing Aspect of M
Human Perception: An Intimate Look Into The Most Intriguing Aspect of Modern Psychology. It determines what we see, what we do, what we feel. It controls our emotions, our thoughts, and our conscience. What is this remarkable element of the human mind? It is called perception. Perception as defined in the Merrian- Webster Dictionary as the following- 1 a : awareness of the elements of environment through physical sensation b: Physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience 2 a : quick,
Mill And Kant's Ethical Theories
Mill And Kant's Ethical Theories
Mill And Kant's Ethical Theories Get Essays - Essay Search - Submit Essays - Request Essays - Essay Links - FAQ Compare Mill and Kant's ethical theories; which makes a better societal order? John Stuart Mill (1808-73) believed in an ethical theory known as utilitarianism. There are many formulation of this theory. One such is, Everyone should act in such a way to bring the largest possibly balance of good over evil for everyone involved. However, good is a relative term. What is good? Utilitaria
Nero
Nero
Nero A neuropsychologist is a psychologist who specializes in studying brain behavior relationships. Neuropsychologists have extensive training in the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the nervous system. Some neuropsychologists specialize in research while other neuropsychologists specialize in evaluating and treating people who are thought to have something wrong with the way in which their nervous system is functioning. Neuropsychologists study brain behavior relationships under very spec
Teenage Smoking
Teenage Smoking
Teenage Smoking In a society where it is not unordinary to see a ten year old child smoking a cigarette in public, where large tobacco companies sponsor all big sporting events and where smoking advertisements are everywhere you look, how can it be understood that what is going on is a form of suicide. Smoking is comparable to a serial killer; a cigarette acts as the weapon used by tobacco companies and its victims subjecting themselves by their own free will to participate in the crime. The gov
The Effects of Divorce
The Effects of Divorce
The Effects of Divorce Divorce in our society has become increasingly common. Fifty percent of all marriages will end in divorce and each year 2 million children are newly introduced to their parents separation, (Monthly Vital Statistics Report ). Demographers predict that by the beginning of the next decade the majority of the youngsters under 18 will spend part of their childhood in single-parent families, many created by divorce. During this confusing period of turmoil and high emotional inte