And Chloride Ions

Documentation of Competency
Documentation of Competency
Documentation of Competency Objective: I Atom - the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element Example: the formation of a sodium chloride crystal Molecule - The smallest part of any substance which has the qualities of that substance, and which can exist alone in a free state. Example: a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Organelle - A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in the life of a cell. Example: t
ESTERIFICATION AND HYDROLYSIS
ESTERIFICATION AND HYDROLYSIS
ESTERIFICATION AND HYDROLYSIS Experiment #1: Methyl Benzoate by Fisher Esterification Post – Lab Organic Chemistry II Lab – Section 7515 February 25, 2004 INTRODUCTION The Fischer esterification reaction reaches equilibrium after a few hours. This equilibrium can be shifted by adding more of the acid or of the alcohol. The mechanism of the reaction involves initial protonation of the carboxyl group, followed by attack by nucleophilic hydroxyl, a proton transfer, and finally loss of water follow
ABOUT THE INTERACTION BETWEEN MOLECULES
ABOUT THE INTERACTION BETWEEN MOLECULES
ABOUT THE INTERACTION BETWEEN MOLECULES The properties observed for matter on the macroscopic level are determined by the properties of the constituent molecules and the interactions between them. The polar or non-polar character of a molecule will clearly be important in determining the nature of its interactions with other molecules. There will be relatively strong forces of attraction acting between molecules with large dipole moments. To a first approximation, the energy of interaction betwe
Investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between Calc
Investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between Calc
Investigate the factors, which affect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid Background information In this investigation, which is about the different factors and their affects on the rate of reaction, we will be reacting calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid à Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) à CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) We will be using hydrochloric acid
Common Anions and Cations Lab
Common Anions and Cations Lab
Common Anions and Cations Lab Period 3 The purpose of this lab was to identify common anions and cations in solutions using simple chemical tests, and to use the results discovered in these tests to identify ions in an unknown solution. First we tested for anions, skipping the boiling bath described by step one; we tested for the chloride ion. To do so we added 2 mL of sodium chloride to a clean prepared test tube. To a second clean test tube we added 2 mL of the unknown substance-A102. One mL e
Hoppy Heart Homework Assignment
Hoppy Heart Homework Assignment
“Hoppy” Heart Homework Assignment P-2 Class 17 EMSM 250 5/19/03 The human heart is a hollow, cone shaped organ that is relatively the size of a person’s fist. The apex of the heart is tilted obliquely and pointed towards the left hip and it rests on the diaphragm at approximately at the level of the fifth intercostal space, which is about the nipple line (Marieb 309). The heart weighs around 300 grams (10 oz.) in an adult. The heart is near the middle of the thoracic cavity in the mediastinum, w
THE ROLE CATALYSTS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS THEIR IMPORTANCE IN INDUSTRY
THE ROLE CATALYSTS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS THEIR IMPORTANCE IN INDUSTRY
THE ROLE CATALYSTS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS, THEIR IMPORTANCE IN INDUSTRY, PROBLEMS AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS. A Catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. The process is called catalysis. In this report I aim going to explain the role of catalysts in chemical reactions and their importance in industry. I will also outline the problems associated with the use of some catalysts and discuss, using appropriate examples, new develop
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder among Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many
What is Cholera
What is Cholera
What is Cholera? Cholera is an acute illness characterized by watery diarrhea that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. Cholera can be confirmed only by the isolation of the causative organism from the diarrheic stools of infected individuals (USFDA 1992). Causes, incidence, and risk factors Cholera is an acute illness characterized by watery diarrhea. The toxin released by the bacteria causes increased se
Fertilizer
Fertilizer
Fertilizer A fertilizer is any natural or manufactured material that is added to soil to increase plant growth. Plants cannot live without the primary nutritional elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; the secondary elements, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur; and small amounts of boron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc--called micronutrients or trace elements. Plants obtain all these elements from the soil. They must be added to soils deficient in them becaus
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. People have always known that they exist. The Ancient Greeks were the firsts to speculate on the composition of matter. They thought that it was possible that individual particles made up matter. Later, in the Seventeenth Century, a German chemist named Georg Ernst Stahl was the first to postulate on chemical reaction, specifically, combustion. He said that a substance called phlogiston escaped into the air from all substances dur
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Biology - Genetics Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thir
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
Salt and Its Uses
Salt and Its Uses
Salt and Its Uses As we know, salt is the most useful resource found on earth. In Ancient Rome, salt was used as part of the salary to the soldiers. From this, we can see that salt was as valuable as gold in the past. In our daily life, besides making nutritious food more palatable, salt is very useful in making bakery products, canned and frozen foods. Salt is a good preservative that retards the growth of micro-organisms to make food storage possible for a long period of timie before refrigera
Clinical Chemistry Tests In Medicine
Clinical Chemistry Tests In Medicine
Clinical Chemistry Tests In Medicine Of the diagnostic methods available to veterinarians, the clinical chemistry test has developed into a valuable aid for localizing pathologic conditions. This test is actually a collection of specially selected individual tests. With just a small amount of whole blood or serum, many body systems can be analyzed. Some of the more common screenings give information about the function of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas and about muscle and bone disease. There a
Salt Pollution
Salt Pollution
Salt Pollution As awareness for pollution increases, other forms of pollution are defined. Almost everyone knows about toxic waste and carbon dioxide pollution, but not many people have heard of salt pollution. Salt pollution has been on the increase since the evolution of the automobile. With more pressure on government agencies to keep the highway clear and safe, an increase in the use of salt has developed. It is important to understand why salt is used and how it work as well as the environm
Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites
Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites
Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites The first topic that was covered by this chapter was the excretion of wastes by the Renal system. The first step that occurs in the kidney deals with the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. In the glomerulus the formation of urine begins with the passive filtration of plasma through the pores that are found in the glomerulus. The plasma is forced through these pores by hydrostatic pressure. The only things that determi
How Nutrients Get in and Wastes Out
How Nutrients Get in and Wastes Out
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. By Faisal Premji Science 10 Assignment -- Part B In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained? This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified
What Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They
What Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They
What Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They Contribute To Membrane Function?. Summary. The role of the biological membrane has proved to be vital in countless mechanisms necessary to a cells survival. The phospholipid bilayer performs the simpler functions such as compartmentation, protection and osmoregulation. The proteins perform a wider range of functions such as extracellular interactions and metabolic processes. The carbohydrates are found in conjunction with both
Intermolecular Bonding Essay
Intermolecular Bonding Essay
Intermolecular Bonding Essay Write an essay on intermolecular bonding. Explain how each type of bond arises and the evidence for the existence of each. Comment on their strengths in relation to the types of atoms involved; the covalent bond and relative to each other. Use the concepts of different types and strengths of intermolecular bonds to explain the following: There exists four types of intermolecular bonding, they include ionic, covalent, Van der waals and hydrogen bonding. In order to de
Involvement of K in Leaf Movements During Suntracking
Involvement of K in Leaf Movements During Suntracking
Involvement of K+ in Leaf Movements During Suntracking Introduction Many plants orient their leaves in response to directional light signals. Heliotropic movements, or movements that are affected by the sun, are common among plants belonging to the families Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Oxalidaceae. The leaves of many plants, including Crotalaria pallida, exhibit diaheliotropic movement. C. pallida is a woody shrub native to South Africa. Its trifoliate leaves are connected to the peti
Rates of Reaction
Rates of Reaction
Rates of Reaction BACKGROUND INFORMATION What affects the rate of reaction? 1) The surface area of the magnesium. 2) The temperature of the reaction. 3) Concentration of the hydrochloric acid. 4) Presence of a catalyst. In the experiment we use hydrochloric acid which reacts with the magnesium to form magnesium chloride. The hydrogen ions give hydrochloric acid its acidic properties, so that all solutions of hydrogen chloride and water have a sour taste; corrode active metals, forming metal chlo
The Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions Their Importance In Industry
The Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions Their Importance In Industry
The Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions, Their Importance In Industry, Problems and New Developments OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE SCHOOLS EXAMINATION BOARD. General Certificate Examination - Advanced Level Chemistry (Salters') - Paper 3 mock. ROBERT TAYLOR U6JW. A Catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. The process is called catalysis. In this report I aim going to explain the role of catalysts in chemical reactions and thei
The Element Chlorine
The Element Chlorine
The Element: Chlorine General Information We researched the chemical element known as chlorine. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 and an atomic weight of 35.453. It has a valence number of 3. The element has 3 energy levels. Chlorine exists as a greenish-yellow gas at normal temperatures and pressures. Chlorine is second in reactivity only to fluorine among the halogen elements. Chlorine is a nonmetal. It is estimated that 0.045% of the earth’s crust and 1.9% of sea water are chlorine. Chlorin