Algorithm

Computer Based Systems
Computer Based Systems
Computer Based Systems The system Development Cycle What is it? The system development cycle is a method used to create a system where none has existed before and/or modify an existing system. It is sometimes simply called System Development. It involves a number of stages representing a standard strategy for taking a problem from start to finish. Two approaches: 1. Conservative-working systematically through the steps. 2. Radical-Cycling through the cycle several times until the final result i
BACKGROUND
BACKGROUND
BACKGROUND In 1996, AT&T decided to split into three different companies. These new companies were the new AT&T, NCR, and Lucent Technologies. Lucent Technologies is one of the leading designers, developers, and manufacturers of telecommunications systems, software, and products.1 They are beginning to emerge as a Fortune 40 company. Lucent Technologies builds local networks, business telephone systems, and consumer telephones that access the global networks.2 Lucent Technologies was launched w
Digital photography which is also called digital imaging since it does
Digital photography which is also called digital imaging since it does
Digital photography, which is also called ‘digital imaging’ since it does not involve the use of film started in the sixties. The original development of the technology is at NASA when they required that exploration spacecraft, unable to return to earth, to be capable of sending back pictures of their voyages. The digital camera, like the standard film camera, uses a lens to focus the image on a sensor. The usual film camera depends on a film to capture the image but the digital relies on a sen
Brownian Motion
Brownian Motion
Brownian Motion Brownian motion was first observed by Dr Robert Brown in 1827, using pollen grains. It was not explained correctly until much later. Albert Einstein set about explaining Brownian motion in 1905. Dr Robert Brown was a biologist and was studying pollen grains under a microscope. He noticed that the tiny grains were constantly moving and jigging around. He explained this by saying that, since pollen grains are from plants and plants are alive, then these grains must also be alive an
BioinformaticsIntroduction
BioinformaticsIntroduction
BioinformaticsIntroduction We take bioinformatics to mean the emerging field of science growing from the application of mathematics, statistics, and information technology, including computers and the theory surrounding them, to the study and analysis of very large biological, and particularly genetic, data sets. The field has been fueled by the increase in DNA data generation leading to the massive data sets already generated, and yet to be generated, in particular, the data from the human geno
Digging Out of the AI Winter
Digging Out of the AI Winter
Digging Out of the AI Winter In the early 1960s, when the first person fathomed the idea of artificial intelligence, it was nothing but a vision. It was a vision that seemed more than possible given the recent leaps in technological insight. Developments such as transistors, microprocessors, high-level programming languages, and many more had put the technology world in high gear. As a countless number of engineers and scientists went to work developing this coveted ‘artificial intelligence’, th
Data Compression
Data Compression
Data Compression �Data Compression� just sounds complicated. Don�t be afraid, compression is our good friend for many reasons. It saves hard drive space. It makes data files to handle. It also cuts those immense file download times from the Internet. Wouldn�t it be nice if we could compress all files down to just a few bytes? There is a limit to how much you can compress a file. How random the file is, is the determining factor to how far it can be compressed. If the file is completely r
Voice Communications Using Digital Networks
Voice Communications Using Digital Networks
Voice Communications Using Digital Networks July 21, 1997 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 3 A BRIEF HISTORY OF VOIP 6 VOICE COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY 10 VOICE DATA TRANSMISSION 17 CURRENTLY AVAILABLE SOFTWARE 21 THE VALUE OF VOIP 42 THE FUTURE OF VOIP 45 SUMMARY 50 APPENDIX A 53 APPENDIX B 55 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 TABLE OF FIGURES 59 Executive Summary The decade of the nineteen nineties is often labeled the information age. Few would argue against the statement timely information avail
UNIKIX
UNIKIX
UNIKIX In my company UniKix is a software program used my 99% of our programmers on a daily basis. UniKix really does not have a definition. It's just a name for a software product. The name was made up by taking the words 'UNIX' and the word 'CICS' and mashing them together to come up with UNIKIX. Unix and CICS are other software products you will read about in my paper. Unix is an operation system, like Windows 95, someone once told me. Unix is one of only a few operation systems that runs on
Computer Science
Computer Science
Computer Science Study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers—devices that automatically process information. Computer science traces its roots to work done by English mathematician Charles Babbage, who first proposed a programmable mechanical calculator in 1837. Until the advent of electronic digital computers in the 1940s, computer science was not generally distinguished as being separate from mathematics and engineering. Since
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION Turning meaningful words and numbers into coded language has been in use since pharaohs ruled over Egypt some 400 years ago. It is a simple way of making your data readable only by those you want to read it. In the Wild West, in fact, Wells Fargo conducted much of its banking activities via telegraph, and the bank regularly coded messages like so: A simple phrase like, We will pay $1,000 silver tomorrow, was relayed over telegraph lines as confusing jumble like, Petrify Ambitio
A study of various caching strategies for data cache management
A study of various caching strategies for data cache management
A study of various caching strategies for data cache management. Abstract: We review a frequency based replacement algorithm for managing caches used for disk blocks by a File System, DBMS or disk control unit, which we refer to as Data Caches. LRU replacement is generally used widely for such caches. We present a replacement algorithm based on the concept of maintaining reference counts in which locality has been factored out. In this algorithm replacement choices are made using a combinatio
Abstract
Abstract
Abstract The advent of the Mind Age of intelligent robots envisioned by Hans Moravec will bring profound transformations in global social and technological structures and relations of an advanced intelligence to its environment. The ability of future machines to directly share experiences and knowledge with each other will lead to evolution of intelligence from relatively isolated individual minds to highly interconnected structural entities. The development of a network of communicating mobile
Censorship of the Internet
Censorship of the Internet
Censorship of the Internet Censorship of the Internet Threatens to Destroy it, While Wide Spread Encryption Could Prevent the Need for Government Intervention. by Pedja Stojanovic EN109 Prof. Thurston ABSTRACT Computerization has influenced everyone's life during the last decade. This global net allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables common people to access information world-wide. The Internet as network is key to the future of our society. How
Service Mechanism and Process
Service Mechanism and Process
Service Mechanism and Process Service Characteristics 1. Service Mechanism or Process: For each category of customer it is necessary to describe the service process. This is usually expressed as a probability distribution for service times; for example, service times might be normally distributed or uniformly distributed. At the least, we need to state the average time it takes for a server to serve a customer and the variance or standard deviation of the service time. We decline m = average ser
C Programming
C Programming
C++ Programming NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management NOTES ON C++ PROGRAMMING Module 1: Pointers and Memory Management TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 OVERVIEW 4 BASIC MEMORY MANAGEMENT 5 GROUP ASSIGNMENT 6 INITIALIZATION 8 CONSTANTS 9 INCREMENT AND DECREMENT OPERATORS 10 ELSE-IF 13 SWITCH 14 LOOPS 15 EXAMPLES OF LOOPS 16 BREAK, CONTINUE 18 RETURN 19 FUNCTION DEFINITION: 21 VOID FUNCTIONS 22 FUNCTIONS RETURNING A VALUE 23 OVERVIEW Algorithms: A step-by-step seq
Censorship on the Internet
Censorship on the Internet
Censorship on the Internet During the past decade, our society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across large distances quickly. Computerization has influenced everyone's life. The natural evolution of computers and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global net allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables even the common person to a
Crypography
Crypography
Crypography Cryptography is way you can keep information secure. A person who does not know the method used to change the information to keep it secure cannot copy the method used or reverse the change. The basic components of cryptographic systems are used to encipher (scramble) information so that it is difficult to determine the meaning without the appropriate key or key(s) to decipher (unscramble) the information. The components include cryptographic algorithms (mathematical functions) for e
Computer Simulation
Computer Simulation
Computer Simulation WARSIM 2000 is simulation software, used by the armed forces. Extensive, thorough, and tiring work has been done on thgis program. It covers almost all aspects and situations required for realistic, meticulous and a complete simulation. Information Technology has lead to the advancement of the tools required to build the simulator. Information Technolgy’s guideleines and technolgy have reinforced this creative simulator General Description of Operational Capability. WARSIM
Effects Of Video Gaming
Effects Of Video Gaming
Effects Of Video Gaming My heart hammered in my chest as I raced out of the doorway just ahead of another explosion. Fragments from the blast sent pinpricks of searing pain shooting through my nervous system and gave me a new spurt of energy. Screaming like a madman, I sped across the courtyard and then scrambled over a low wall, falling into what I hoped was some sort of temporary refuge. The constant string of explosions abated, so I attempted to collect myself and take stock of my situation.
Government Intervention of the Internet
Government Intervention of the Internet
Government Intervention of the Internet During the past decade, our society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across large distances quickly. Computerization has influenced everyone's life. The natural evolution of computers and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global net allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables even the commo
Government Invtervention of the Internet
Government Invtervention of the Internet
Government Invtervention of the Internet During the past decade, our society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across large distances quickly. Computerization has influenced everyone's life. The natural evolution of computers and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global net allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables even the comm
Mind And Machine
Mind And Machine
Mind And Machine Mind and Machine: The Essay Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and
Technology
Technology
Technology Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and the possibilities of consciousness
Integration Of UMTS And B-ISDN Is It Possible Or Desirable
Integration Of UMTS And B-ISDN Is It Possible Or Desirable
Integration Of UMTS And B-ISDN: Is It Possible Or Desirable? INTRODUCTION In the future, existing fixed networks will be complemented by mobile networks with similar numbers of users. These mobile users will have identical requirements and expectations to the fixed users, for on-demand applications of telecommunications requiring high bit-rate channels. It will be necessary for these fixed and mobile networks to interoperate in order to pass data, in real time and at high speeds, between their u
Government Intervention of the Internet
Government Intervention of the Internet
Government Intervention of the Internet During the past decade, our society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across large distances quickly. Computerization has influenced everyone's life. The natural evolution of computers and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global net allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables even the commo
Neural Networks
Neural Networks
Neural Networks A neural network also known as an artificial neural network provides a unique computing architecture whose potential has only begun to be tapped. They are used to address problems that are intractable or cumbersome with traditional methods. These new computing architectures are radically different from the computers that are widely used today. ANN's are massively parallel systems that rely on dense arrangements of interconnections and surprisingly simple processors (Cr95, Ga93).
Procedures Parameters Sub-Programs
Procedures Parameters Sub-Programs
Procedures, Parameters & Sub-Programs In any modern programming language, procedures play a vital role in the construction of any new software. These days, procedures are used instead of the old constructs of GOTO and GOSUB, which have since become obsolete. Procedures provide a number of important features for the modern software engineer:- Programs are easier to write. Procedures save a large amount of time during software development as the programmer only needs to code a procedure once, but
The Necessity Of Computer Security
The Necessity Of Computer Security
The Necessity Of Computer Security When the first electronic computers emerged from university and military laboratories in the late 1940s and early 1950s, visionaries proclaimed them the harbingers of a second industrial revolution that would transform business, government and industry. But few laymen, even if they were aware of the machines, could see the connection. Experts too, were sceptical. Not only were computers huge, expensive, one-of-a-kind devices designed for performing abstruse sci
Video Cards
Video Cards
Video Cards Introduction People are living in a three-dimensional space. They know what is up, down, left, right, close and far. They know when something is getting closer or moving away. However, the traditional personal computers can only make use of two dimensional space due to relatively low technology level of the video card in the past. As the new technology has been introduced to the video card industry in recent years, the video card can now render 3D graphics. Most of the PC computer ga
The Chaos Theory
The Chaos Theory
The Chaos Theory Where Chaos begins, classical science ends. Ever since physicists have inquired into the laws of nature, the have not begun to explore irregular side of nature, the erratic and discontinuous side, that have always puzzled scientists. They did not attempt to understand disorder in the atmosphere, the turbulent sea, the oscillations of the heart and brain, and the fluctuations of wildlife populations. All of these things were taken for granted until in the 1970's some American and
Data Mining In A Nut Shell
Data Mining In A Nut Shell
Data Mining In A Nut Shell In today’s business world, information about the customer is a necessity for a businesses trying to maximize its profits. A new, and important, tool in gaining this knowledge is Data Mining. Data Mining is a set of automated procedures used to find previously unknown patterns and relationships in data. These patterns and relationships, once extracted, can be used to make valid predictions about the behavior of the customer. Data Mining is generally used for four main t
The internet
The internet
The internet The Internet: its effects and its future Essay written by Eva Kotsi Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people's homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in
Computer Communications Bus Network
Computer Communications Bus Network
Computer Communications: Bus Network Bus Network, in computer science, a topology (configuration) for a local area network in which all nodes are connected to a main communications line (bus). On a bus network, each node monitors activity on the line. Messages are detected by all nodes but are accepted only by the node(s) to which they are addressed. Because a bus network relies on a common data “highway,” a malfunctioning node simply ceases to communicate; it doesn't disrupt operation as it mig
Java Vs C
Java Vs C
Java Vs. C++ Since their inception, computers have played an increasingly important role in today’s society. Advancements in technology have enabled computers to become faster and cheaper. Today, the majority of families own a home computer that is vastly more powerful than giant mainframes of years gone by. Computer hardware has been evolving rapidly with no end in sight, and with all of the advancements in computer hardware come advancements in computer software; gone are the days when FORTRAN
Computer Crime
Computer Crime
Computer Crime A young man sits illuminated only by the light of a computer screen. His fingers dance across the keyboard. While it appears that he is only word processing or playing a game, he may be committing a felony. In the state of Connecticut, computer crime is defined as: 53a-251. Computer Crime (a) Defined. A person commits computer crime when he violates any of the provisions of this section. (b) Unauthorized access to a computer system. (1) A person is guilty of the computer crime of
Dramatic Fluctuations Of Devil's Lake ND
Dramatic Fluctuations Of Devil's Lake ND
Dramatic Fluctuations Of Devil's Lake, ND Dramatic Fluctuations of Devils Lake, North Dakota: Climate Connections and Forecasts Connely K. Baldwin and Upmanu Lall Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-8200 Introduction The recent (1992-date) record rise in the level of the Devils Lake, North Dakota, has led to a number of questions as to the nature of regional and global climate variability, and the utility of existing methods for forecasting lake levels and asse
Electronic Commerce
Electronic Commerce
Electronic Commerce Initially, the Internet was designed to be used by government and academic users, but now it is rapidly becoming commercialized. It has on-line shops, even electronic shopping malls. Customers, browsing at their computers, can view products, read descriptions, and sometimes even try samples. What they lack is the means to buy from their keyboard, on impulse. They could pay by credit card, transmitting the necessary data by modem; but intercepting messages on the Internet
Government Intervention on the Internet
Government Intervention on the Internet
Government Intervention on the Internet CIS 302 - Information Systems I John J. Doe XXX-XX-XXXX March 12, 1997 During the last decade, our society has become based on the sole ability to move large amounts of information across great distances quickly. Computerization has influenced everyone's life in numerous ways. The natural evolution of computer technology and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global network allow
Naming Conventions Hungarian
Naming Conventions Hungarian
Naming Conventions (Hungarian) Doug Klunder January 18, 1988 1. Introduction This document describes a set of naming conventions used by the Applications Development group. These conventions commonly go by the name Hungarian, referring both to the nationality of their original developer, Charles Simonyi, and also to the fact that to an uninitiated programmer they are somewhat confusing. Once you have gained familiarity with Hungarian, however, we believe that you will find that the clarity of
The internet
The internet
The internet The internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people's homes and offices. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: Technology [Paper Title]: The internet [Text]: The Internet: its effects and its future Essay written by Eva Ko
Steganography
Steganography
Steganography Steganography: While Encryption is detectable and a target for questions by the government as well as hackers, Steganography takes it one step further and hides the message within an encrypted message or other mediums; such as images, making it virtually impossible to detect. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- [Category]: Technology [Paper Title]: Steganography [Text]: I. INTRODUCTION While Encryption is detectable and a target for question
History Of Math
History Of Math
History Of Math IS 490 SPECIAL TOPICS Computer Graphics May 6, 1996 Table of Contents Introduction 3 How It Was 3 How It All Began 4 Times Were Changing 6 Industry''''''''s First Attempts 7 The Second Wave 10 How the Magic is Made 11 Modeling 12 Animation 13 Rendering 13 Conclusion 15 Bibliography 16 Introduction Hollywood has gone digital, and the old ways of doing things are dying. Animation and special effects created with computers have been embraced by television networks, advertisers, and
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence ABSTRACT Current neural network technology is the most progressive of the artificial intelligence systems today. Applications of neural networks have made the transition from laboratory curiosities to large, successful commercial applications. To enhance the security of automated financial transactions, current technologies in both speech recognition and handwriting recognition are likely ready for mass integration into financial institutions. RESEARCH PROJECT TABLE OF CO
What HDTV Is
What HDTV Is
What HDTV Is Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0 (Lasica). Data that is transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0's and 1's. Each of these digits is referred too as a bit (and a string of bits that a computer can address individually as a group is a byte). Prior to digital technol
Fractal Geometry
Fractal Geometry
Fractal Geometry Fractal geometry is a fascinating concept of dimension and shape. After being assigned this project I was recalled to the cookie jar that is on top of the fridge that I sought after as a child. The cookie jar features an image of a chef reaching into a cookie jar that featured the same repeating image of a chef. This particular ceramic piece of art was my first thought about the concept of infinity. The pioneering genius of fractal geometry, Benoit Mandelbrot, was a highly visu
Quantum Computers
Quantum Computers
Quantum Computers Fact -or- Fantasy? CS Senior Seminar Imagine a computer whose memory is exponentially larger than its apparent physical size; a computer that can manipulate an exponential set of inputs simultaneously; a computer that computes in the twilight zone of space. You would be thinking of a quantum computer. Relatively few and simple concepts from quantum mechanics are needed to make quantum computers a possibility. The subtlety has been in learning to manipulate these concepts. Is s
Introduction to Islam
Introduction to Islam
Introduction to Islam Allah (God) Islam is the complete submission and obedience to Allah (God). The name Allah (God) in Islam never refers to Muhammad (pbuh), as many Christians may think; Allah is the personal name of God. What do Muslims believe about Allah? 1. He is the one God, Who has no partner. 2. Nothing is like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a part of His creation. 3. He is All-Powerful, absolutely Just. 4. There is no other entity in the entire universe worthy of worship bes
ISLAM
ISLAM
ISLAM 570--Birth of Muhammad into Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca. Islamic tradition relates miraculous signs foretelling Muhammad's future greatness. Orphaned and raised by an uncle Abu Talib to be a trader. 595-Muhammad marries Khadijah a rich widow several years his senior. Earns reputation of Al-Amin --the faithful, for his virtue and wisdom. 610- The Night of Power (believed to be the 26th of Ramadan)--First revelation while meditating in a cave on Mt. Hira outside Mecca. Voices and visi
Exploring Telepresence
Exploring Telepresence
Exploring Telepresence Preface Telepresence is an emerging technology that may totally change our value towards time and space. It introduces an idea in designing computer user interface in a human natural way. The interface enables users to feel they are physically present in a distant site and to control remote objects to achieve user’s goals. Human is able to overcome distance, traveling time and adverse environment for completing remote tasks. Is this technology interesting? This article wil