Search Results for tragedy of macbeth

Macbeth
Macbeth
Macbeth In Shakespeare's tragedy, Macbeth, the characters and the roles they play are critical to its plot and theme, and therefore many of Shakespeare's characters are well developed and complex. Two of these characters are the protagonist, Macbeth, and his wife, Lady Macbeth. They play interesting roles in the tragedy, and over the course of the play, their relationship changes and their roles are essentially switched. At the beginning of the play, they treat each other as equals. They have gr
The Truth Behind William Shakespears Hamlet
The Truth Behind William Shakespears Hamlet
The Truth Behind William Shakespears Hamlet The Truth Behind William Shakespeares Hamlet A Tragedy must not be the spectacle of a perfectly good man brought from prosperity to adversity. For this merely shocks us-Aristotle-300bc (pg. 229,Shakespearean criticism, vol. 3) Thesis: William Shakespeare, one of the greatest dramatists in the world, has been famous and well known since the early 1600s. Some of his greatest works have been reproduced hundreds of times. He wrote poems, sonnets, plays
The story Macbeth is like no other in plot and poe
The story Macbeth is like no other in plot and poe
The story Macbeth is like no other in plot and poetry. It sets itself apart from the rest by having a protagonist becoming evil. What makes Macbeth such a complicated character is the way his outlook keeps on changing throughout the play. This essay will prove that Macbeth is an evil man and was not overpowered by ambition to get what he wanted. This essay will also determine that certain characters like the witches did not force him to do evil; they simply triggered it. In the beginning of the
Macbeth motif of blood
Macbeth motif of blood
Macbeth motif of blood In William Shakespeares Macbeth, the motif of blood plays an important factor in the framework of the theme. A motif is a methodical approach to uncover the true meaning of the play. Macbeths tragic flaw is that he thinks he can unjustly advance to the title of king without any variation of his honest self. The blood on Macbeths hands illustrates the guilt he must carry after plotting against King Duncan and yearning for his crown. Shakespeare used the image of blood to
The Downfall of Macbeth
The Downfall of Macbeth
The Downfall of Macbeth The Downfall of Macbeth Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, is the tragic tale of Macbeth, a virtuous man, corrupted by power and greed. This tragedy can be classified by one of two theories. One theory suggests that the tragic hero, Macbeth, is led down an unescapable road of doom by an outside force; namely the three witches. The second suggests that there is no supernatural force working against Macbeth, which therefore makes him responsible for his own actions an
MACBETH
MACBETH
MACBETH Macbeth is presented as a mature man of definitely established character, successful in certain fields of activity and enjoying an enviable reputation. We must not conclude, there, that all his volitions and actions are predictable; Macbeth\'s character, like any other man\'s at a given moment, is what is being made out of potentialities plus environment, and no one, not even Macbeth himself, can know all his inordinate self-love whose actions are discovered to be-and no doubt have been
Cheryl Bowman
Cheryl Bowman
Cheryl Bowman Mrs. Bembas 2nd. Period English 6 May 1996 The Life of the Great William Shakespeare There are many authors that are widely read. However, none are more universally read and studied than the great William Shakespeare of the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His plays and poems have moved millions of people, unofficially giving him the well-deserved title of the greatest of all dramatists. Shakespeare is the basis for excellence in literacy and theatrical performances. Although oc
Macbeth13
Macbeth13
Macbeth13 “The tragedy of MacBeth” is a story of courage and honor. It gives an interesting mix of love, Machiavellianism, and has a good storyline. MacBeth is a loyal subject to his king, Duncan, but goes terribly wrong when he listens to 3 witches that tell him he will rule someday. MacBeth wishes to get to power quickly with the help of his wife, Lady MacBeth, he kills Duncan, and everyone else in his way. He takes his throne but is soon overturned by his former subordinates. In MacBeth, Shak
Antigone And Creon
Antigone And Creon
Antigone And Creon Many dramatic theorists have documented their opinions of Sophocles\' tragic play Antigone. They have presented their interpretations as to the motives and moral character of Antigone and Creon. I will attempt to encapsulate the basic logic behind the arguments of the critics Brian Vickers, A.C. Bradley (who interprets Hegel), and H. D. F. Kitto, and venture my own humble opinion as to their validity. Brian Vickers clearly favors the character of Antigone. He challenges Hegel
A Hero
A Hero
A Hero A hero is often a man that is usually of divine ancestry. A hero or heroine can be found in many different forms. There are certain characteristics that make up a hero or a heroine. Some of those characteristics are someone who is endowed with great courage, loyalty, obedience, cleverness, strength and someone who is noted for special achievement in a particular field. Depending on the book or the character a hero or heroine could show one heroic characteristics or more and still consider
The Tragedy Of Hamlet
The Tragedy Of Hamlet
The Tragedy Of Hamlet Arguably the best piece of writing ever done by William Shakespeare, Hamlet the is the classic example of a tragedy. In all tragedies the hero suffers, and usually dies at the end. Othello stabs himself, Romeo and Juliet commit suicide, Brutis falls on his sword, and like them Hamlet dies by getting cut with a poison tipped sword. But that is not all that is needed to consider a play a tragedy, and sometimes a hero doesn\'t even need to die. Making Not every play in which a
Sympathy For Macbeth
Sympathy For Macbeth
Sympathy For Macbeth In Ernest Hemingway\'s masterpiece, The Old Man and the Sea, he uses much symbolism to assist the readers understanding of the massage he is trying to portray. The Old Man and the Sea isn\'t just a book about an old man and the sea. There are many hidden meanings to it. Each element represents different things. The marlin, for example, represents strength, beauty and the last challenge we all go though. The lions in his dreams resemble youth, freedom, and also strength. Sant
Macbeth As A Tragic Hero
Macbeth As A Tragic Hero
Macbeth As A Tragic Hero Shakespeare uses many forms of imagery in his plays. Imagery, the art of making images, the products of imagination. In the play Macbeth Shakespeare applies the imagery of clothing, darkness and blood. Each detail in his imagery contains an important symbol of the play. These symbols need to be understood in order to interpret the entire play. Within the play \'Macbeth\' the imagery of clothing portrays that Macbeth is seeking to hide his \'disgraceful self\'; from his e
Macbeth
Macbeth
Macbeth In Shakespeare\'s tragedy, Macbeth, the characters and the roles they play are critical to its plot and theme, and therefore many of Shakespeare\'s characters are well developed and complex. Two of these characters are the protagonist, Macbeth, and his wife, Lady Macbeth. They play interesting roles in the tragedy, and over the course of the play, their relationship changes and their roles are essentially switched. At the beginning of the play, they treat each other as equals. They have
Macbeth
Macbeth
Macbeth Character Macbeth is presented as a mature man of definitely established character, successful in certain fields of activity and enjoying an enviable reputation. We must not conclude, there, that all his volitions and actions are predictable; Macbeth\'s character, like any other man\'s at a given moment, is what is being made out of potentialities plus environment, and no one, not even Macbeth himself, can know all his inordinate self-love whose actions are discovered to be-and no doubt
Macbeth: A Noble And Highly Respected Figure In Du
Macbeth: A Noble And Highly Respected Figure In Du
Macbeth: A Noble And Highly Respected Figure In Ducans Reign Macbeth: A Noble and Highly Respected Figure In Ducan\'s Reign Macbeth was a noble and highly respected figure in King Duncan\'s reign. He lived a brave and honest life, serving the King and his country against evil. The Tragedy of Macbeth occurred when the weird sisters met Macbeth for the first time. An evil mind took over Macbeth, and he was doomed to the witches prophesies until his death. Macbeth was a General of the King\'s army,
Macbeth - Supernatural And Spirits
Macbeth - Supernatural And Spirits
Macbeth - Supernatural And Spirits In the play Macbeth , there are many interesting sections that concentrate on the suspense and the involvement of the supernatural. The use of the supernatural in the witches, Lady Macbeth, nature, the vision, the ghost and the apparitions are all key elements in making Macbeth as a tragedy play. With the sense of the supernatural and interference of the spirits, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are led to dangerous tempting things. Macbeth\'s character becomes complet
In all of his plays, Shakespeare uses an assortmen
In all of his plays, Shakespeare uses an assortmen
In all of his plays, Shakespeare uses an assortment of motifs and symbols that bear vivid imagery, almost bringing them to life, just like a character. In the tragedy Macbeth, Shakespeare does an excellent job in using the element darkness, and words associated to it, to create a type of "force" that has an impact on the characters and the play itself. When we think of the dark, what immediately comes to our minds are feelings of evilness, wickedness, and negativity. Darkness is a tool that Macb
Role of the foll in shakespeare's king lear
Role of the foll in shakespeare's king lear
role of the foll in shakespeare\'s "king lear" Alison Dew Explore the role of the fool in King Lear. In Elizabethan times, the role of a fool, or court jester, was to professionally entertain others, specifically the king. In essence, fools were hired to make mistakes. Fools may have been mentally retarded youths kept for the court’s amusement, or more often they were singing, dancing stand up comedians. In William Shakespeare’s King Lear the fool plays many important roles. When Cordelia, Lear’
Macbeth
Macbeth
Macbeth A struggle is present in every tragedy, as a person tries to overcome their flaws and fit the mold of their ideal. William Shakespeare plainly defined a good man in the play Macbeth . This goal by it\'s definition is a difficult one for any man to achieve. Prudence and logic, temperance and patients, as well as the vindication of honor are Shakespeare\'s defining characteristics of a good man.As with any well written tragedy, Macbeth\'s title character and hero had to fall from his place
Macbeths tomarrow, Tomarrow Speech Vs. Robert Fr
Macbeths tomarrow, Tomarrow Speech Vs. Robert Fr
Macbeths "tomarrow, Tomarrow" Speech Vs. Robert Frosts "out, Out - " An unknown author once wrote "Never take life too seriously; after all, no one gets out of it alive". When reading this quote, there can almost be an immediate connection between two very good works of writing: Macbeth\'s "Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow" speech from Shakespeare\'s tragedy, Macbeth, and the poem "Out, Out --" by Robert Frost. Both allude to the idea that a single life, in its totality, denotes nothing, and e
MACBETH
MACBETH
MACBETH The use of the Classical Tragic Mold in character development In Shakespeare's tragedy, Macbeth, there are many characters. Only one character stands out, and his name is in the title of the play. Macbeth's character was made in the mold of the ancient Greek tragic hero. Besides being endowed by Shakespeare with an abundance and variety of potential traits and characteristics, Macbeth also follows the Classical Tragic Mold, which is presented with a hefty supply of hubris, and in this ca
Free Hamlet Essays: The Real Tragedy of Hamlet Ham
Free Hamlet Essays: The Real Tragedy of Hamlet Ham
Free Hamlet Essays: The Real Tragedy of Hamlet Hamlet essays Arguably the best piece of writing ever done by William Shakespeare, Hamlet the is the classic example of a tragedy. In all tragedies the hero suffers, and usually dies at the end. Othello stabs himself, Romeo and Juliet commit suicide, Brutis falls on his sword, and like them Hamlet dies by getting cut with a poison tipped sword. But that is not all that is needed to consider a play a tragedy, and sometimes a hero doesn't even need to
tragmac Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay: A Tragedy Wit
tragmac Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay: A Tragedy Wit
tragmac Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay: A Tragedy Without the Tragic Flaw? Macbeth essays Macbeth: A Tragedy Without the Tragic Flaw? William Shakespeare wrote four great tragedies, the last of which was written in 1606 and titled Macbeth. This tragedy, as many critics of literature consider it, scrutinizes the evil dimension of conflict, offering a dark, gloomy atmosphere of a world dominated by the powers of darkness. Macbeth, more so than any of Shakespeare's other tragic protagonists, has to fa
Hamlet - The Tragedy Of Hamlet
Hamlet - The Tragedy Of Hamlet
Hamlet - The Tragedy Of Hamlet Hamlet - The Tragedy Of Hamlet Arguably the best piece of writing ever done by William Shakespeare, Hamlet the is the classic example of a tragedy. In all tragedies the hero suffers, and usually dies at the end. Othello stabs himself, Romeo and Juliet commit suicide, Brutis falls on his sword, and like them Hamlet dies by getting cut with a poison tipped sword. But that is not all that is needed to consider a play a tragedy, and sometimes a hero doesn't even need t
The Downfall of Lady Macbeth
The Downfall of Lady Macbeth
The Downfall of Lady Macbeth The Downfall of Lady Macbeth Macbeth is a play full of magic, mystery, and murder. The variety of plots, as well as the interesting characters, force the reader to pay full attention at all times. Unfortunately, one of these characters is a victim of her own imagination. Although Lady Macbeth adds much positive flavour to the play, her character is revealed through her aggressive attitude with her husband, her inhumane disregard for life, and her guilty conscience. L
Shakespeare's King Lear - A World too Cruel? King
Shakespeare's King Lear - A World too Cruel? King
Shakespeare's King Lear - A World too Cruel? King Lear essays King Lear - A World too Cruel? King Lear is at once the most highly praised and intensely criticized of all Shakespeare's works. Samuel Johnson said it is "deservedly celebrated among the dramas of Shakespeare" yet at the same time he supported the changes made in the text by Tate in which Cordelia is allowed to retire with victory and felicity. "Shakespeare has suffered the virtue of Cordelia to perish in a just cause, contrary to th
Macbeth - The Importance of the Witches
Macbeth - The Importance of the Witches
Macbeth - The Importance of the Witches The witches in Macbeth are very important in the plot and develop certain aspects of the play. They make greater the theatrical experience with images of darkness, thunder and lightning that make Macbeth the tragedy it is. Their actions also add to the play, dancing round the cauldron and chanting ‘Double, double…’. Their appearance as ‘dark hags’ adds mystery to the play. The witches also add a sense of evil and of the supernatural. Their chanting, ‘Doubl
The Color Purple - Compared to Macbeth
The Color Purple - Compared to Macbeth
The Color Purple - Compared to Macbeth What is a perfect human? Human perfection may be measured by physical ability or intellectual achievement; however, it may also be measured by strength of character, and in this realm humans may often fall short. Weakness of character, shown through various character flaws, causes most of the hardships in life. Literature such as Shakespeare's Macbeth and Alison Walker's The Color Purple contain three levels of characters: setting characters, secondary char
Macbeth: Superstitions
Macbeth: Superstitions
Macbeth: Superstitions The tragedy of Macbeth was written by Shakespeare in 1606 and produced in 1610. Macbeth is the most concentrated of Shakespeare's tragedies. The action gushes forward with great speed from the beginning to end. The main characters in the play are Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, who are very noble, but their evil ambition ultimately causes their downfall and death. The play focuses around evil, greed and the supernatural. The play was written by Shakespeare for the king at that t
Macbeth Tragic Hero
Macbeth Tragic Hero
Macbeth Tragic Hero To What Extent Does Macbeth Fulfil The Demands of A Tragic Hero? To be able to answer this question fully and profoundly we must first be able to accurately understand and be able to describe what is meant by a tragic hero. The classical idea of a tragic hero was first introduced by the ancient Greeks. The earliest known example of this was from Aristotle's 'Poeticus'. There are many essential points that are needed to be fulfilled to allow a character to be a true tragic her
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's Suicide
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's Suicide
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's Suicide Nicholas Bermudez Mr. Thompson 4� European Literature 2 Honors March 18, 2000 Reasons for the Anticipation of Claudius's Suicide In the tragic play Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, a particular deterrent in Hamlet's quest to be rid of his regal uncle is his procrastination. This act of murder intended to set the future right is Hamlet's sole responsibility, ordered by his deceased father. Hamlet's main target throughout the play is for Claudius
MacbethEssays:A Serialization of the Characters an
MacbethEssays:A Serialization of the Characters an
MacbethEssays:A Serialization of the Characters and their Influence on MacbethWords: 1916Ambition in MacbethWords: 488Analyzing MacBeth According to The 7 Habits of Highly Effective TeensWords: 555Authority and MacbethWords: 1110Blood as an Image in MacbethWords: 564Blood Imagery in MacbethWords: 970Blood in MacbethWords: 1312Can we Hold Macbeth Fully Responsible for the Evil Deeds in the Play?Words: 2344Character Changes in MacbethWords: 828Downfall of MacbethWords: 1203Historical MacBeth compa
Hamlet Aspects
Hamlet Aspects
Hamlet Aspects In the play, Hamlet by William Shakespeare, many aspects contribute to the tale of tragedy, but of these there is one thing that is purely essential to this famous story : the ghost of King Hamlet. The ghost of King Hamlet is so important to Hamlet on so many levels, accounting for most issues, directly or indirectly, that are involved in the drama. The intrigue of the pale specter creates many things such as Hamlet's procrastination, it also projects the image of Hamlet's madness
Macbeth: A Mature Man of Established Character
Macbeth: A Mature Man of Established Character
Macbeth: A Mature Man of Established Character Macbeth: A Mature Man of Established Character Macbeth is presented as a mature man of definitely established character, successful in certain fields of activity and enjoying an enviable reputation. We must not conclude, there, that all his volitions and actions are predictable; Macbeth's character, like any other man's at a given moment, is what is being made out of potentialities plus environment, and no one, not even Macbeth himself, can know all
OEDIPUS
OEDIPUS
OEDIPUS Enjoying Oedipus the King , by Sophocles Ed Friedlander MD [email protected] http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm#predestination 2. Predestination Long before we got civilized , ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination . If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.
Macbeth
Macbeth
Macbeth In Shakespeare's tragedy, Macbeth, the characters and the roles they play are critical to its plot and theme, and therefore many of Shakespeare's characters are well developed and complex. Two of these characters are the protagonist, Macbeth, and his wife, Lady Macbeth. They play interesting roles in the tragedy, and over the course of the play, their relationship changes and their roles are essentially switched. At the beginning of the play, they treat each other as equals. They have gr
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's Suicide
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's Suicide
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's Suicide Nicholas Bermudez Mr. Thompson 4 European Literature 2 Honors March 18, 2000 Reasons for the Anticipation of Claudius's Suicide In the tragic play Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, a particular deterrent in Hamlet's quest to be rid of his regal uncle is his procrastination. This act of murder intended to set the future right is Hamlet's sole responsibility, ordered by his deceased father. Hamlet's main target throughout the play is for Claudius to
Macbeth
Macbeth
Macbeth MACBETH Macbeth is presented as a mature man of definitely established character, successful in certain fields of activity and enjoying an enviable reputation. We must not conclude, there, that all his volitions and actions are predictable; Macbeth's character, like any other man's at a given moment, is what is being made out of potentialities plus environment, and no one, not even Macbeth himself, can know all his inordinate self-love whose actions are discovered to be-and no doubt have
What is the tragedy of Othello
What is the tragedy of Othello
What is the tragedy of Othello What is the tragedy of Othello? Othello is Shakespeare’s most complete tragedy. It is filled, in my opinion, with some of the strongest characters in all of Shakespeare’s plays. Othello, the play’s main character, is a cultured Moor, nevertheless insecure and hiding behind a facade of Venetian values and customs. He manages to assimilate into Western European society by denying his background and winning the hearts of the masses (and their daughters) with his tales
The Role of the Three Witches in Macbeth as Genera
The Role of the Three Witches in Macbeth as Genera
The Role of the Three Witches in Macbeth as Generators of Ima In the following critical essay, one aspect of William Shakespeare's Macbeth will be explored and be explained. This aspect is that of the three Weird Sisters. These three "secret, black, and midnight hags" (Mac. IV.i 47), hardly distinguishable as humans, serve a huge dramatic function in the play. Closely looking at Macbeth, one can distinguish the many functions that they serve in the play. The role of the three Weird Sisters in th
The Influence of the witches and Lady Macbeth on M
The Influence of the witches and Lady Macbeth on M
The Influence of the witches and Lady Macbeth on Macbeth The combination of the influence of the witches and the influence of Lady Macbeth on Macbeth are what precipitate the tragedy. The witches’ initial prophecies, where they address Macbeth with titles he doesn’t have, influence Macbeth. The apparitions in the play also have an influence on Macbeth because of their ambiguous allure. When Lady Macbeth questions Macbeth’s masculinity she influences him to kill Duncan. Even though Macbeth has do
Macbeth1
Macbeth1
macbeth1 Macbeth is presented as a mature man of definitely established character, successful in certain fields of activity and enjoying a greedy reputation. We must not conclude, there, that all his violations and actions are predictable; Macbeth\'s character, like any other man\'s at a given moment, is what is being made out of likelihood plus environment, and no one, not even Macbeth himself, can know all his inordinate self-love whose actions are discovered to be-and no doubt have been for a
Macbeth A Man Whose Ambition Out Weighed His Consc
Macbeth A Man Whose Ambition Out Weighed His Consc
Macbeth A Man Whose Ambition Out Weighed His Conscience Macbeth: A Man Whose Ambition Out-Weighed His Conscience Macbeth\'s struggle with evil was a long and somewhat deeper story. Shakespeare writes Macbeth so the reader has to think about why Macbeth did what he did and how much of what he did was him and how much were outside influences. The reader has to see that Macbeth was taken over by greed and or what could be called ambition. Macbeth\'s struggle was also a test of character. Every man
Macbeth - Tragedy
Macbeth - Tragedy
Macbeth - Tragedy According to the classical view, tragedy should arouse feelings of pity and fear in the audience. Does Macbeth do this? Tragedy has most definitely influenced the viewer\'s thoughts on Macbeth within this play. In Shakespeare\'s Macbeth, the audience sees a gradual breakdown in the character of Macbeth himself, due to the tragic events that unfold during the play. This has a direct effect on the audience\'s views and thoughts of Macbeth, thus creating pity and fear within the a
Macbeth - Witches
Macbeth - Witches
Macbeth - Witches To what extent are the witches in the tragedy Macbeth responsible for Macbeth\'s actions? The Three witches in the tragedy Macbeth are introduced right at the beginning of the play. They recount to Macbeth three prophesies. That Macbeth will be Thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glams and King. These prophesies introduce Macbeth to ideas of greatness. Macbeth will eventually follow through on killing king Duncan. It was sometimes thought that the witches had the ability to reverse the n
Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire?
Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire?
Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire? Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire? William Shakespeare wrote four great tragedies, the last of which was written in 1606 and titled Macbeth. This "tragedy", as it is considered by societal critics of yesterday\'s literary world, scrutinizes the evil dimension of conflict, offering a dark and gloomy atmosphere of a world dominated by the powers ofdarkness. Macbeth, more so than any of Shakespeare\'s other tragic protagonists, has to face the powers and decide: should he succu
Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire?
Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire?
Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire? Macbeth: Tragedy or Satire? William Shakespeare wrote four great tragedies, the last of which was written in 1606 and titled Macbeth. This "tragedy", as it is considered by societal critics of yesterday\'s literary world, scrutinizes the evil dimension of conflict, offering a dark and gloomy atmosphere of a world dominated by the powers ofdarkness. Macbeth, more so than any of Shakespeare\'s other tragic protagonists, has to face the powers and decide: should he succu
The downfall of Macbeth was a great tragedy. He kn
The downfall of Macbeth was a great tragedy. He kn
The downfall of Macbeth was a great tragedy. He knew it was not right to kill the king, but he felt he had no other choice. He was trapped into doing wrong. Lady Macbeth gave him the evil ideas throughout the play. She was his driving force. Without her, Macbeth wouldn’t have done what he did. Therefore, Lady Macbeth is as much of a main character as Macbeth is. Macbeth says, "Stars, hide your fires; Let not light see my black and deep desires"(1.4.57-58). Here he is expressing that while he doe
Macbeth as a Tragedy
Macbeth as a Tragedy
Macbeth as a Tragedy William Shakespeare is the noted author of a vast array of plays, ranging from comedies to histories to tragedies. Perhaps one of his most famous in the tragedy genre is Macbeth. Though Shakespeare can be considered as a scholar in the sense that he was both a renowned and prolific playwright, look back a few hundred years to find Aristotle, one of the most famous scholars and philosophers of all time. In his treatise titled Poetics, he defends poetry against criticism as we