Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace on Nosvember 30, 1874. His father was Lord Randolph Churchill, who descended directly from the 1st duke of Marlborough, of whom Winston was to write a biography. His mother was Jennie Jerosme, an American. His inspirational life brings hope and guidance, he was a martyr for democracy in a time when Europe was in shambles, Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill is the person of the century.
Churchill's childhood was filled with disappointment and tediousness. He spent most of his time at school, something he didn't take seriously. His teachers characterized him as bright, but stubborn and obstinate. He avidly loved to read history and poetry, however, and was fascinated by the glories of battle. From childhood he had an extraordinary memory, that he frequently used to memorize stanza after stanza of poetry.
Winston Churchill didn't want to go to university. His dream was to be enrolled in the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. He graduated in 1894.After service in Cuba and India, he worked as a war-correspondent in Northern India, Sudan and in South Africa, where he was captured by the Boers. His daring escape made him an overnight celebrity.
Churchill always wanted to become a politician. Early in his life he envisioned himself at political debates. His wish came true in 1900, when he was elected to the Parliament as a Conservative, and he quickly made his mark. ************ His political sympathies began to change, however, and he "changed sides" in 1904, when he abandoned the Conservative party for the Liberals.
When the Liberals came to power in 1905, Churchill entered the government as secretary of state for the colonies. In 1908, the year of his marriage to Clementine Hosier, he became a member of the cabinet as president of the Board of Trade. Winston's political missions became more and more important, in 1910 he became a member of the Admiralty. In 1913-1914 Churchill completed British naval preparations for war.
During World War Churchill made some fatal mistakes in war strategy. This was one of the main reasons that he was removed from the Admiralty when the Conservatives (many of whom now detested him) joined the government in 1915.
After a period of active military service in France, he was re-elected in the Parliament. He became minister of munitions under the prime minister David Lloyd George. He then served as secretary of state for war and air, and for the colonies. Churchill helped negotiate the treaty that created the Irish Free State. But despite all this he lost both his office and his seat in Parliament when Lloyd George's coalition government fell in 1922.
Over the next year or two, Churchill gradually moved back into alliance with the Conservatives. He frequently remarked, "Any fool can rat, but I flatter myself that it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat." Returning to Parliament in 1924, he was offered the post of chancellor of the exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government (1924-1929). It was in this position Churchill maybe made his biggest mistake as a politician: He revalued the pound, giving the currency a fixed value against other currencies, to better the rather poor economic situation. Churchill took this step with many misgivings, and it proved a mistake, worsening the poor economic situation. Afterward he made efforts to heal the grand failure with labor.
Between 1929 and 1939 Churchill did not hold office. He disapproved violently of Baldwin's Indian policy, which pointed toward eventual self-government. At the same time he warned against the ambitions of Nazi Germany and urged that Britain should match Germany in air power. As World War II drew nearer, his warnings were brought to life in bloodshed. When general war broke out in September 1939, Churchill was offered his old post of first lord of the Admiralty by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Following the unsuccessful allied attempt to "remove" the Germans from Norway, Chamberlain was determined to resign. Churchill replaced him as prime minister, just as Germany invaded the low countries on May 10, 1940.
The prime minister Winston Churchill was largely responsible for many aspects of war policy. He established personal relations of the highest value with U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt who began to supply arms and weapons to Britain immediately after the British army lost most