First of all what is water pollution, water pollution is when a substantial portion of waste enters our water system. Water pollution is everywhere it has caused a lot of death and sickness around the world. In previous research done by the government of Canada, it said "Canada is a water rich nation-we are steward of 9% of the worlds renewable fresh water while Canadians enjoy one of the highest standards of clean water in the world, pollution remains an important problem in some of our waters". The quality of Canada’s freshwater and marine areas is effected by three important water pollution problems: toxic substance, excess nutrient, and sedimentation. These substance enter our water in a variety of ways including industrial sources, accidents, municipal wastewater effluents, and atmospheric deposition . Industrial sources such as mining, steel production, the generation of electricity and chemical production. Accidents such as oil or chemical spills and contamination sites such as Sydney tar ponds in Nova Scotia. Atmospheric deposition from Mexico, the united states, Europe and Asia, which is deposited in Canada through rain and snow: and agricultural run off. These are the major sources of water pollution here in Canada.

Contamination may enter the marine environment from many anthropogenic source, including industrial genic sources, including industrial discharges, spills, inputs from coastal and offshore oil and gas development municipal waste water discharges run off from agricultural and urban areas, ocean dumping, and long rage atmospheric transport. Six important types of contamination known to affect marine environmental quality in Canada are nutrients, Spill, PAHS heavy metals, synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, and persistent litter debris. A vast number of contaminants enter fresh water because of human activity. Many of these substances are capable of causing harm to the environment or human life, and therefore they are defined as toxic under the 1988 Canadian Environmental Protection Act . A toxic substance is persistent or non persistent in the environment depending on how long it takes to break down, but both are harmful to the aquatic environment. Some of the contaminants are Dioxins ,furans, PCBs , Pesticide and Heavy metals.

Dioxins and Furans - Popular names for two classes of chlorinated organic compound, known as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) there formed by products during some type of chemical production that involve chlorine and high temperatures or during combustion where a source of chlorine is present.

Pesticide-substance, usually chemicals, used to kill unwanted plants and animals includes, herbicide, insecticide, algaecides and fungicide.

Heavy Metals-Metallic elements with relatively high atomic weights, such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. Generally toxic to plant and animal life in even relatively low concentrations.

These chemicals enter our waters by accident , dumping and being very careless. It might not affect as today but it will eventually catch on. Like for example between 1968 and 1972, the dumping of used waste oils, mainly from the chemical and petrochemical industries polluted the ground water between the towns of Mercier and Ste-Martine, Quebec. Wells were contaminated. Unbeknown to them, residents were exposed to health risks and after a $10 million expenditure , the water in 1986 was still undrinkable(science council of Canada 1988)

There are several ways on preventing and reducing this type of accidents , including setting up organization to tackle the problem before it becomes worst like for example the green peas, the Green Peas is an organization that try’s to reduce and prevent water pollution and other types of pollution we might face today. The government of Canada mentioned "That across the country, Canadians have initiated large scale remedial programs to reduce the impact of the city on adjacent water bodies. The lower Fraser River, for example, flows through the most heavily urbanized and industrialized area in British Columbia and the third largest urban region in Canada. The rivers estuary is contaminated not only by the region’s sewage, industrial effluents, and runoff, but also by atmospheric and marine pollutants." The extensive contamination of the great lakes system has led the great lakes water quality board of the international joint commission to designate no fewer than 43 "areas of concern" 12 of which are wholly within Ontario. This list includes both Hamilton Harbor and the Toronto water front. Toronto area, water pollution control(sewage treatment) plants, sewers contaminated sediments