Time to Exercise, Exercise Time Patterns
and Motivation

A Research Paper
Presented to

Prof. Cecilia Corral
University of the Philippines-Visayas

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Course Requirements for

Physical Education 1

Katrina B. Riobuya
Bachelor of Science in Management

September 14, 2000


Public awareness of health and other quality-of-life issues has increased

dramatically in recent years. Today, it is virtually impossible to read a newspaper or

magazine or listen to a radio or television news program without coming across a

health-related feature or item. The quality of such reports is sometimes less than

excellent. Nevertheless, they have helped us realize that we all need to make a

conscious and sustained effort to improve or maintain our good health.

The current interest in wellness arises, to a large extent, from an attempt to identify

and encourage alternatives to the sedentary way of life. Exercise, along with good

nutrition, adequate sleep, and other wise behaviors is coming to be widely recognized as

a critical component of a healthier lifestyle.

The health benefits of regular exercise have been confirmed by numerous research

studies. Certainly, exercise should not be viewed as a cure for all physical ailments.

However, its integration into daily life is a positive step toward improved health that all of

us can make.

Definition of Terms:

1. Exercise Program - a plan or procedure of physical training of the human body to

improve the way it functions.

2. Exercise Session - the time period within which a complete set of exercises is

completed; each session consists of 3 phases---

warm-up, main stimulus activity, and cool-down.

3. Aerobic Exercise - a system of physical conditioning designed to aid bodyís

efficient intake of oxygen.

4. Cardiovascular - of the heart and the blood vessels as a unified body system.

5. Stamina - resistance to fatigue, illness, hardship, etc.; endurance.


Participation in an exercise program can be of considerable benefit to both physical

and mental health. It is important to note, however, that the greatest potential health and

fitness benefits of exercise can only be realized if exercise is pursued on a consistent


An improvement in overall fitness requires a comprehensive, balanced exercise

program that addresses all of the major components of fitness. In addition, the nature

and magnitude of the health benefits that anyone can expect to receive from exercise

are influenced by his or her general level of health and fitness at the beginning of an

exercise program.

A well-designed exercise program should be tailored to meet an individualís specific

goals and needs. While most exercise programs will include at least a sampling of

activities designed to enhance all of the major fitness components, the relative emphasis

placed on each of these components--cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength and

endurance, and flexibility--will be dictated by the desired outcome.

On the other hand, while individual exercise programs will vary in terms of

emphasis, certain features are common to all well-designed programs. No matter what

its goals, for example, any exercise program should allow enough time for proper

warm-up and cool-down in addition to the activities that comprise the main portion of

each exercise session.

Time to Exercise

In exercising, you will need to determine an appropriate intensity and duration for

your proposed exercise program. The time of exercise is dependent on the intensity of

the activity. Intensity refers to heart rate during exercise. Knowing correct exercise heart

rate is the key to getting a proper aerobic workout. Research has shown that a heart

rate representing 60 to 80 percent of maximum heart rate is aerobic and can increase

cardiovascular activity. Exercising below aerobic heart rate will not lead to a significant

increase in stamina, and exercising above your rate can be needlessly exhausting. To

establish your target (training) heart rate (THR), use the formula:

Estimated Maximum Heart Rate (HR max) = 220 - your age (beats per minute)

Lower THR limit = .60 x HR max (bpm)

Upper THR limit = .80 x HR max (bpm)

E.g.: If you are 35 years old, training heart range is:

HR max = 220 - 35 ( = 185 bpm)

Appropriate aerobic training heart range: between 111 ( .60 x 185 ) bpm and

148 ( .80 x 185 ) bpm.

It is important to ensure that your initial level of intensity must be neither too low to

produce results nor