Theory of Knowledge


Epiphenomenalism states that the brain controls our mind. However our mind contains no ability to control or have any effect on our brain, i.e. A smoke factory controls the smoke however the smoke has no effect on the factory. Epiphenomenalism also demands that that there is only a one way physical to mental relationship, which obviously means there is no mental to physical relationship(which means that our mind can not control what our body can do physically.

Cartesian dualism

Cartesian dualism talks about the two way connection between the mental and physical. Cartesian dualism questions the connections between the mind and brain. Causation is Descartes answer: “ states of our minds casually interact with states of our brains. When bodily sensations such as aches, pains, itches and tickles cause us to moan, wince, scratch, or laugh, they do so by causing brain states (events, processes), which in turn cause body movements. In deliberate action, we act on our desires motives and intensions to carry out our purposes; and acting on these mental states involves their causing brain states, which in turn involves our bodies to move, thereby casually influencing the physical world. There for there are two roads, the mental to the physical (as in action) and from physical to mental (as in perception).


Occasionalism was thought of by Clauberg, De la Forge and Malebranche. Occasionalism is said that the argument that everything is with out fundamental effectiveness and that god is the only truly fundamental agent.(so not only do we have mind/body interactions but god also make us feel things). E.g. “ placing your hand in a hot stove is does not cause pain, but is rather an occasion for god to cause the mental state of pain, there for we do not only have mind/body interactions and fundamental interactions become the work of god.


This theory was made by a man, Leibniz . It is basically causal interaction dualism without the interaction. Rather than causal interaction god has set up so that both the mental and physical have been synchronized, however Leibniz was not even a dualist himself. He thought that there is no physical substance, and that they were just appearances. “this position is often considered a possible dualistic solution to the mind-body problem”.


Melebranche and Leibniz, among others, “rejected the possibility of psychophysical causal interaction”. They take up versions of parallelism: the view that the mental/physical realms run in parallel, and that types of mental phenomena co-occur with certain types of physical types of phenomena, but these co-occurrences never involve causal interactions.

Aspect theory

A man called Spinoza said that the mental and physical states were just basic modes of a substance. Spinoza was not a property dualist. Mental and physical were two possible modes of the basic substance. Never less he was labeled as one. Spinoza thought that the main basic substance was god. Thus he was thinking that the only real thing was god, who was neither mental nor physical. His theory was very similar to a man called Russell.

Knower’s And knowing Essay