The Theme of Father/Son Relationships in
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The Theme of Father/Son Relationships in
The Song of Roland
Literary Patterns of European Development
The representation of father-son type relationships in early Medieval literary works
is a key theme early authors used to give their works more depth and meaning. Two works that use the theme of father-son relationships are Beowulf and The Song of Roland. In Beowulf, the relationship between Hrothgar and Beowulf is one in which there is no actual blood father-son tie, but the two characters take on all the characteristics of a real father son relationship. Hrothgar, although Beowulf’s senior, has to rely on this new warrior who comes to Heorot to help him rid his kingdom of a great danger which he can not get rid of by himself, and Hrothgar treats him as if he were his own son. In The Song of Roland, Charles’ relationship with his nephew Roland also takes on the characteristics of a father-son type relationship. In this work, although Charles is the better warrior than Roland, he relies on Roland to watch the rear guard of his army and Roland loses his life while serving his King. The significance of these inter-generational relationships will be looked at in this paper, as well as what the authors through the guise of these father-son relationships were trying to say about various different aspects of life during their time.
In Beowulf, the function of the relationship between Hrothgar and Beowulf helps to further the plot in several ways. Whenever there is a reliance on family in any literary work, it gives any story more meaning and significance. When Beowulf first arrives in Hrothgars’ hall, we get a sense of the old and incapable state Hrothgar is in "old and gray-haired among the guard of earls" (Beowulf, pg. 62) is how he is first described. When hearing who Beowulf’s father is he states in a joyous tone "I knew him when he was a child!..Well does the son now pay this call on a proven ally!" (Beowulf, pg. 62-63) Immediately there is a fond relationship here which will develop even further. When
Beowulf claims that he is in Heorot to cleanse the people of the monster named Grendel who is plaguing them, Hrothgar is very grateful and he states "So it is to fight in our defence, my friend Beowulf, and as an act of kindness that you have come to us here!" (Beowulf, pg. 65) We see here that Hrothgar is indeed grateful to have the services of so brave a warrior. When Beowulf slays Grendel, the pride that the old Hrothgar feels towards Beowulf can almost be equated to the pride a father will feel towards his son when he accomplishes a great deed. He even claims Beowulf as his son when he holds up the slain Grendel’s hand and states "Beowulf, I now take you to my bosom as a son, O best of men, and cherish you in my heart. Hold yourself well in this new relation!" (Beowulf, pg. 80) This claiming of Beowulf as his son and his later bestowing to him gifts customary to their society shows how strong their bond is. After the slaying of Grendel’s mother, the relationship grows even stronger, and Hrothgar from this point on will be ever grateful to his new son who saved his kingdom from so great a peril.
In The Song of Roland, the relationship that exists between Charles and Roland is just as significant as in Beowulf, but is somewhat different. Roland is recognized as a prized knight and the King’s nephew before he is assigned to the rearguard, (as can be seen as through the protests of the thought of him going to negotiate with the treacherous Saracens) but not until after Roland’s betrayal and death is he esteemed so high in Charles’ mind and all the others involved. When hearing of the betrayal Roland states "Where are you, fair nephew? ……God!" , Says the King, "how bitter my reproach, that I was absent when they struck the first blow" (The Song of Roland, sect. 177) in utter desperation. When later Charles finds out Roland has definitely been slain by the
Paynims, while lying down to sleep he thinks of his nephew who he thought of as
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Beowulf, English-language films, Geats, Scyldings, Anglo-Saxon paganism, Hrothgar, Grendel, Unfer, Beowulf Grendel
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