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The Spanish Civil War
A civil war is defined as an internal struggle within a country or nation.
The Spanish Civil war was no different. It was an internal struggle in Spain
that began with a military uprising on July 17-18, 1936 and did not end until
March 28, 1939. In february 1936, the leftist government of Spain exiled
Francisco Franco to an obscure command in the Canary Islands. The death of
Jose Calvo Sotelo also had the effect of accelerating a revolt that had been
under preparation for a long time. In July, Franco joined other right wing
officers in a revolt against the Spanish Republic. On the eighteenth of July,
the revolt spread to other garrisons in metropolitan Spain. The following day,
Franco took command of the army in Morroco.
The Republican government formed a coalition cabinet and moved to
Valencia. On September 29, Franco was named the Head of State and
commander of the armed forces. In return, the Republicans created a popular
army and militarized the militia. The Republicans received aid from the
International Brigades; The Nationalists, headed by Franco, were receiving
aid from Italy and Germany. In 1937 the Nationalists made progress. They
took Malaga, the Basque provinces, and the Asturias. Madrid, however, held
out. After an unsuccessful drive into Valencia, Franco moved on and
captured Barcelona on January 26, 1939. By this time, Soviet shipments to
the Republicans had declined severely. This gave the Nationalists a
substancial military edge and many Republicans were divided over whether to
continue fighting. When Madrid fell to Franco's forces on March 28, 1939,
the Civil War was over.
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Spanish Civil War, Politics of Spain, Francoist Spain, Spain, Francisco Franco, Second Spanish Republic, Jos Calvo Sotelo, Nationalist faction, Spanish coup of July
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