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1 There are 5 types of states: republics, hereditary principalities, completely new principalities, and new joined principalities. A prince rules with: arms and fortune or prowess. § "All the states, all the dominions under whose authority men have lived in the past and live now have been and are either republics or principalities." France is an example of a republic.
2 Home-court advantage. § "I say, then, that in hereditary states, accustomed to their prince’s family, there are far fewer difficulties in maintaining one’s rule than in new principalities." Great Britain has many troubles holding on to Northern Ireland.
3 It is difficult to hold a new state. When a new foreign power occupies a state, it usually will lose it. After this power re-conquers it, it will not be lost so easily. These tips will help you keep your new state: keep the language, customs, and laws the same; live in the state, and when you injure someone, make sure they can’t fight back. § "for men change their rulers willingly, hoping to better themselves, and this hope induces them to take up arms against him who rules: wherein they are deceived, because they afterwards find by experience they have gone from bad to worse."§ "Upon this, one has to remark that men ought either to be well treated or crushed, because they can avenge themselves of lighter injuries, of more serious ones they cannot; therefore the injury that is to be done to a man ought to be of such a kind that one does not stand in fear of revenge." Iraq conquered Kuwait and quickly lost it to Kuwait again.
4 Central governments are difficult to acquire while easy to maintain thereafter. A balkanized state is easy to acquire but is difficult to maintain thereafter. § "I answer that the principalities of which one has record are found to be governed in two different ways: either by a prince, with a body of servants, who assist him to govern the kingdom as ministers by his favour and permission; or by a prince and barons, who hold that dignity by antiquity of blood and not by the grace of the prince. Such barons have states and their own subjects, who recognize them as lords and hold them in natural affection." Yugoslavia had a difficult time keeping together all the different republics.
5 3 Ways to govern a state that has previously under their own laws and freedom: ruin it, reside in it, or grant a pseudo-autonomy. Note, however, that the last option cannot be used for republics. § "Whenever those states which have been acquired as stated have been accustomed to live under their own laws and in freedom, there are three courses for those who wish to hold them: the first is to ruin them, the next is to reside there in person, the third is to permit them to live under their own laws, drawing a tribute, and establishing within it an oligarchy which will keep it friendly to you. " After Berlin was occupied in WWII, the allies decided to grant it psuedo-autonomy.
6 True princehood is established with arms and ability specific to each person, not luck. § "Let him act like the clever archers who, designing to hit the mark which yet appears too far distant, and knowing the limits to which the strength of their bow attains, take aim much higher than the mark, not to reach by their strength or arrow to so great a height, but to be able with the aid of so high an aim to hit the mark they wish to reach."§ "Nevertheless, he who has relied least on fortune is established the strongest."§ "Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new." The CCP has stayed in power through luck.
7 Those who acquire a state because of luck will have trouble maintaining the state unless they have the ability to create a foundation, which is very difficult to lay. § "Those who solely by good fortune become princes from being private citizens have little trouble in rising, but much in keeping atop; they have not any difficulties on the way up, because they
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