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THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The digestive system consists of an alimentary canal with accessory organs . The
canal is made up of the oral cavity , pharynx , esophagus , stomach , and small intestine ,
has three parts , the duodenum , jejunum , and the ileum ,the large intestine which consists
the cecum and the vermiform appendix , the ascending colon , transverse colon , the
colon , the sigmoid colon , the rectum and anal canal .The accessory organs are the teeth ,
tongue, salivary glands , sublingual , submandibular , and parotoid , the liver , gall bladder
cystic duct, the common bile or hepatic duct , the pancreas , and the spleen .
The digestive systemís function is to break down foods into nutrients such as proteins ,
and carbohydrates .It supplies the various organs with energy and nutrients , vitamins , and
minerals . The digestive system breaks down food into particles so tiny that blood can take
nourishment to all parts of the body .
The digestive process begins in the oral cavity , where food is cut , ground , and shredded
teeth .The salivary glands lubricate the food as it is swallowed into the esophagus and
the stomach . The food bolus is retained there , the food is then liquefied by a mixture of
cloric acid and pepsin , which is secreted by the stomach wall . Secretions of mucus
the stomach from itís digestive enzymes . The food is then pushed out of the stomach by
peristalsis where it enters the duodenum , the first third of the small intestine .The small
is 16 to 20 feet in length and has an absorbing surface equivalent to half a basketball court
Nutrient absorption occurs mostly in the small intestine .Peristalsis moves the chyme to
jejunum , the second part of the small intestine .The bulk of digested carbohydrate ,
water , water-soluble vitamins , electrolytes , and minerals are absorbed . The remaining
nutrients are propelled to the last third of the small intestine , the ileum . Fat , fat-soluble
mins A , D , E , K , and B12 are absorbed here .Some indigestible remains and cellular
are sent to the colon . Additional water is extracted , potassium is excreted and all this is
the rectum for evacuation .The feces is metabolic end product , water , fats , electrolytes ,
small amount of protein . The body then uses and burns all the useable materials and the
is repeated .
There are a variety of diseases that plague the digestive system . Ulcers are not
may be minor or very serious . If an ulcer is ignored it can lead to death .Gallstones are
masses found in the gallbladder .They can be treated with surgery or drugs .Dysentery
painful diarrhea , bloating and cramps .Appendicitis is a dangerous but curable diseases by
of surgery . A patient with appendants can live only a few days
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Digestive system, Human digestive system, Digestion, Small intestine, Human gastrointestinal tract, Ileum, Chyme, Large intestine, Digestive enzyme, Stomach, Jejunum, Duodenum
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