THE CREATION OF ISRAEL 1945 – 1948 (Mr Watson)

Yr 11 Modern History Assessment – Research Essay Term 1

The Jews were awarded their own state after a series of major events. These events are the ones that left many countries pending on what the right or best decision was. Should the land be awarded because of religious reasons or historical facts and events? There are three main arguments that decided the Jews became the State of Israel. These are: Zionism, the Holocaust and the Balfour Declaration.

The Balfour Declaration came about on the 2nd of November, 1917. It was a letter from Lord Balfour, a British Foreign Secretary to the British Zionist Federation. In the letter it stated that they favoured the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. The British were giving sympathy towards the Jewish people, but there were other reasons that Britain would benefit from. The British knew that Palestine controlled the Mediterranean and the Suez Canal, parts of the sea route to India, the Far East and Australia, making it an essential place to have control over. A Jewish homeland, under British sponsorship, could maintain that freedom of access, which had been cut off by the Ottoman Turkish holdings in the region. Jewish control of Palestine, therefore, was in Britain\'s best interest. The British were also looking for major support in the war, strong allies like Russia were still needed and they also wanted America to enter the war and ally with them. The British didn’t want to portray any prejudice against the Arab people since they lived in Palestine more recently and wanted to come to a solution that both nations would agree with. “His Majesty\'s Government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use our best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” The strong support from the British eventually helped the Jews in achieving their own state.

The Mandate system played a smaller part in establishing a Jewish state, but it is not insignificant. It was put into place by the League of Nations in the 20th century to manage non-governing territories. The mandatory power was selected by an international body, for the general well-being and advancement of its population. On July 1922, the League of Nations put their trust into Great Britain with the Mandate for Palestine. Recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine," Great Britain was called upon to facilitate the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Shortly afterwards, in September 1922, the League of Nations and Great Britain decided that a Jewish national home would not be suitable near the Jordan River. The Mandatory governments were not successful in maintaining the letter and carrying out what they proposed for both the Jewish and Arab people. Under Arab pressure, it withdrew from its commitment, especially with respect to immigration and land acquirement. Even though Britain later terminated its Mandate over Palestine, it was effective in making the public award of the Jews and what situation they were in. Support and sympathy was gained when educated on the subject.

Zionism played a key role in the creation of the Israel; it is the uniting of the Jewish people that made it possible for them to have such a strong influence on the rest of the world. Zionism is a name given to those who supported the return of the Jews to Palestine. Many Jews mainly migrated all over Europe and established a strong Zionist population. Also throughout the world Zionism spread to the smaller groups of Jewish migrants. The Jews learnt from the Europeans about political and scientific renaissance known as the Emancipation, which led the Jews to believe they could return to Palestine and fight for the land in which they so strongly believed was rightfully theirs. Strong supporters of Zionism migrated back to Palestine which are called “Aliyah’s”, and there were several more to follow. The religious beliefs that the Jews tie to the land is an important