The casual reader of John KeatsÕ poetry would most certainly be impressed by the exquisite and abundant detail of itÕs verse, the perpetual freshness of itÕs phrase and the extraordinarily rich sensory images scattered throughout itÕs lines. But, without a deeper, more intense reading of his poems as mere parts of a larger whole, the reader may miss specific themes and ideals which are not as readily apparent as are the obvious stylistic hallmarks. Through KeatsÕ eyes, the world is a place full of idealistic beauty, both artistic and natural, whoÕs inherent immortality, is to him a constant reminder of that man is irrevocably subject to decay and death. This theme is one which dominates a large portion of his late poetry and is most readily apparent in three of his most famous Odes: To a Nightingale, To Autumn and on a Grecian Urn. In the Ode to a Nightingale, it is the ideal beauty of the NightingaleÕs song - as permanent as nature itself - in the Ode on a Grecian Urn, it is the perfection of beauty as art - transfixed and transfigured forever in the Grecian Urn - and in the Ode to Autumn it is the exquisiteness of the season - idealised and immortalised as part of the natural cycle - which symbolise eternal and idealistic images of profound beauty.

In Ode to a Nightingale, Keats uses the central symbol of a bird to exemplify the perfect beauty in nature. The nightingale sings to the poetÕs senses whose ardour for itÕs song makes the bird eternal and thus reminds him of how his own mortality separates him from this beauty. The poem begins: ÒMy heart aches, and a drowsey numbness painsÓ (Norton 1845). In this first line Keats introduces his own immortality with the aching heart - a machine of flesh with a fixed number of life-giving beats. He also employs a common poetic device to indicate a visionary activity is about to follow with the admission to a state of Òdrowsey numbnessÓ. In this case, the visionary action is the poet slowly lapsing into the nightingaleÕs world, opening his senses to the true nature of the bird while other Òmen sit and hear each other groanÓ (Norton 1845). This state of semiconsciousness allows for his understanding that, although it is mid-May, the bird Òsingest of summer in full-throated easeÓ (Norton 1845). The nightingale, whose song so perfectly embodies a particular season that the poet is unable to be mistaken about itÕs meaning, expresses the beauty of nature in a way which man is incapable. The poet is also seeing the bird as timeless, for the summer exists within the nightingale regardless of it being mid-May. In stanza seven the poet reveals the nightingale for what it truly is: a symbol natureÕs immortal beauty. The bird has now entirely escaped the physical limitations of the poetÕs world where all is subject to death and decay, for it Òwast not born for deathÓ, and is an Òimmortal birdÓ living in an imaginary realm. It lives outside of the human world Òwhere beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyesÓ, yet still affects the poet so profoundly that he wonders if it was Òa vision or a waking dream?Ó (Norton 1847). Keats, in experiencing the song as he describes, idealises the nightingale and elevates the bird to a singular embodiment of unchanging natural beauty.

Instead of looking to nature for idealised beauty in Ode to a Grecian Urn, Keats turns his attention to man-made art for inspiration. It is the moment frozen in time on the side of the urn which constitute the immortality and profound beauty which Keats had earlier discovered in the nightingale. Keats admits to the simple ease with which the art is able to express itÕs essence in the first stanza when he writes, Òsylvan historian, who can thus express / a flowery tale more sweetly than the rhmyeÓ (Norton 1847). He is suggesting that art has the power to impress upon the viewer Òmore sweetlyÓ than can the written word impress upon the reader. In the second stanza Keats introduces the idea that the unheard song, and by extension that all impression experienced through means other than the physical senses, are more lasting and perfect than those understood