TABLE 2. RUMEN DEGRADABILITY OF PROTEIN IN COMMON FEEDS

Feed Degradability Undegradability
.............% of crude protein........

Alfalfa, hay or haylage 75 25
Barley 73 27
Brewers grain, dried 47 53
Corn, dried 50 50
Corn gluten meal 45 55
Corn, high moisture 65 35
Corn silage 70 30
Cottonseed, whole 55 45
Distillers grains, dried 46 54
Linseed meal 65 35
Soybean meal-44 65 35
Soybeans, raw 74 26
Soybeans, roasted 51 49
Urea 100 0

TABLE 3. SUMMARIZATION OF FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS IN DAIRY RATIONS

Vitamin A

Function(s): Essential for normal vision; cellular function; and
maintenance of epithelial linings of respiratory, reproductive and
digestive tracts.

Deficiency symptoms and associated problems: Night blindness; skin
problems; blind, dead or weak calves; reproductive problems.

Common feed sources for dairy cattle: Sources of carotene: green,
leafy forages; hays; haylages (little weathering); unfrosted corn
silage; synthetic A; vitamin premix; fish liver oil.


Vitamin D

Function(s): Normal bone growth and development; absorption of
calcium and phosphorus; mobilization of calcium and phosphorus.

Deficiency symptoms and associated problems: Rickets, osteomalacia

Common feed sources for dairy cattle: Sun-cured forages; fish
liver oils; synthetic premixes.


Vitamin E

Function(s): Antioxidant; associated with selenium.

Deficiency symptoms and associated problems: Oxidized flavor in
milk; muscle problems; white muscle desease; cardiac muscle
abnormalities.

Common feed sources for dairy cattle: Alfalfa; germ of cereals;
sheat germ oil; cereal grains; synthetic premixes.

Vitamin K

Function(s): Required for blood clotting.

Deficiency symptoms and associated problems: Hemorrhaging; moldy
sweet clover disease.

Common feed sources for dairy cattle: Green, leafy forages. Ample
amounts normally are synthesized in the digestive tract.

TABLE 5. WATER INTAKE GUIDELINE FOR DAIRY CATTLE

Temperature (F)
Weight (lb) Milk (lb) 40๘and below 60๘ 80๘
............. gal/day.........

Heifers
200 -- 2.0 2.5 3.3
400 -- 3.7 4.6 6.1
800 -- 6.3 7.9 10.6
1200(a) -- 8.7 10.8 14.5

Dry cows(a)
1400 -- 9.7 12.0 16.2
1600 -- 10.4 12.8 17.3
Lactating cows (b)
1400 20 12.0 14.5 17.9
60 22.0 26.1 24.7
80 27.0 31.9 38.7
100 32.0 37.7 45.7

(a)Maintenance and pregnancy.
(b)Maintenance and milk production.



1. Crude protein: 18 to 19 percent (DM basis) in early lactation
decreasing to 13 percent late lactation.

2. Net energy-lactation: .78 Mcal per pound of DM or above in early
lactation decreasing to .70 Mcal per pound in late lactation, and
.6 Mcal per pound during the dry period.

3. Forage dry matter: Minimum of 1.5 pounds per 100 pounds of body
weight. High quality legume forages should be fed during early
lactation.

4. Fiber: Minimum of 18 percent ADF in the DM during early
lactation increasing to 21 percent or greater in late lactation.
Dietary DM should contain a minimum of 21 percent NDF from forages.

5. Salt: .5 to 1 percent trace mineral salt in the grain mix.

6. Mineral: Approximately 1 percent of the grain mix should be a
calcium-phosphorus mineral.

7. Urea: Maximum of .4 pounds of urea per day or 1 percent of the
grain mix.

8. Vitamins: Supplemented A, D, and E in rations to meet
requirements.

9. Ration form: Forages and grains should not be chopped or ground
too fine.




TABLE 6. EXAMPLE RATIONS FOR VARIOUS MILK PRODUCTION PHASE(1)
Item Phase1 Phase2 Phase3
Milk (lb/day) 90 80 50
DM intake (lb/day)(2) 49 51 38
.......lb/day (as fed)......
Ration 1
Alf hay (88% DM)--
140 RFV, 20% CP 28 34 27
Corn-oats(3) 21 24 16
SBM-44% 5.0
Dical-18% P .5 .45 .30
Salt, vitamins, TM .30 .25 .25
Weight change -1.5 -- +.5

Ration 2 (corn silage limit fed)
Alf hay--140 RFV,
20% CP 19 34 23
Corn silage (35% DM) 25 25 25
Corn-oats 18 12 10
SBM-44% 7.5 .3 --
Dical-18% P .45 .50 .3
Salt, vitamins, TM .30 .25 .25
Weight change -1.2 -- +.5

Ration 3 (hay limit fed)(4)
Alf-grass hay--
113 RFV, 16% CP 10 10 10
Corn silage 41 70 57
Corn-oats 16 11 6
SBM-44% 11.5 8.2 4.5
Dical-18% P .40 .30 .25
Limestone .40 .30 .15
Salt, vitamins, TM .30 .25 .25
Weight change -1.4 +.7 +.5

Ration 4
Alf-grass hay--
113 RFV, 16% CP 23 32 24
Corn-oats 22 22 19
SBM-44% 8.5 3.5 1.1
Dical-18% P .45 .40 .25
Limestone .20
Salt, vitamins, TM .30 .25 .25
Weight change -1.9 -- +.5

(1) 1350 lb cow, 3.8% fattest.
(2)Estimated average intake during the phase.
(3)85% corn-15% oats mix.
(4)Feed amounts may have to be limited during phase 2 and 3 to
avoid over-conditioning.

TABLE 7. EXAMPLE DRY COW RATIONS (PHASE 4)(1)
Lb/day
Forage (as fed)
Grass forage
Orchard grass hay--12% CP 25.0
Corn 3.0
Soybean meal .5
Limestone .15
TM salt and vitamins .1

Limited legume forage(2)
Alfalfa hay--RFV 140, 20% CP 12.0
Corn silage 43.0
Monosodium phosphate .1