This essay Studying Drama has a total of 2492 words and 11 pages.
Semester: WS 2003/2004
Abgabetermin: 8. Dezember 2003
Summary of Michael Patterson\'s:
The text „Studying Drama“ written by Michael Patterson deals with the question how drama as a literary genre really works and with its development from its origins in Ancient Greece till nowadays.
At the beginning of the text Patterson exemplifies the general characteristics of a play. In a play environment and setting are not described directly to the reader like in a novel those informations are given via stage directions. A drama is always intended to be performed on a stage and characters communicate in dialogues.
Furthermore Patterson explains that the origins of drama lie in Ancient Greece, where the verb “dran” meant “to do/act/perform” and the Greek noun “theatron” can be translated with “a place of viewing”. The term “play” is normally connected to children who also act out roles recreating their imaginations by situations they have encoutered in real life. Here theatre/drama is seen as a world of “making believe”, where actors wear costumes, perform roles and pretend things which emanate from an author\'s mind. Patterson constitutes childrens\'s play as a natural impulse with a functional value, where they prepair themselves for their adult existence. After that the author discusses the aspect that drama can be understood as an experience of transcendence. People involve themselves with the willingness to play at being someone else, which stands for a great common ground of humanity.
Now Patterson leads to the point in what ways drama differs from poetry and narrative fiction. He explains that poetry and prose offer the feeling of transcendence as well but that these genres are always reported as tough they would lie in the past. By reading a novel for example the reader is mostly confronted with a sense of distance, as if the emotion was already experienced or the action was already complete. Drama in contrast communicates a sense of action in the present. Even if a person knows a play well he is still able to enter the plot, feeling the tension and experiencing events as they really happen. Drama is the genre of present-tense.
As a further aspect Patterson focuses on the objectivity of drama. In contrast to drama, lyric and poetry express individual and subjunctive emotions of the writer, written from the point of view of a character or a fixed narrator, whereas a drama writer can contradict himself in public and is able to put his identity in each character but also to give them an own voice. Therefore establishment of writer\'s own opinion gets difficult.
Afterwards Patterson comes back to the point that a play is usually intended to be enacted, therefore concentration of time is persued. In extreme this could mean that stage time equals real time. The opposite of concentration is time compression; hereby for example events of a whole day are presented as if they happened in a matter of minutes. A novel usually ranges over a longer period of time, changing location is possible. Drama is intended to be performed with a high level of realism and a defined location. Poetry and fiction are conceived to be enjoyed by the reader alone; he decides what he likes to read by his individual choice. Plays can be enjoyed as pure literature as well, but its full potential is first achieved when it is presented on stage. But there are much more difficulties in seeing a play staged than reading a novel at home. For performing a place (building) is needed, performers and audience need to assemble at the same time. Drama is intended to take place in public and therefore drama can be constituted as the most public of all the arts. Moreover drama can have other functions than delighting people. It can get to a threat to oppressive regimes, as happend in the German Democratic Republic, where theatre provided a political forum for democratic debate and as a consequence caused collapse of Communist regime. Patterson clarifies that a play poses greater danger to the status quo than hundreds of isolated individuals reading poems and novles at a non-pubic place.
Furthermore the author informs the reader about Aristotle\'s theory of drama which is the origin of all dramatic theories. Aristotle wanted to jusitifiy drama in terms of its purposefullness. In Ancient Greece watching a drama was
The Rise of Gladiatorial Combat The Rise of Gladiatorial Combat Gladiatorial contests (munera gladitoria), hold a central place in our perception of Roman behavior. They were also a big influence on how Romans themselves ordered their lives. Attending the games was one of the practices that went with being a Roman. The Etruscans who introduced this type of contest in the sixth century BC, are credited with its development but its the Romans who made it famous. A surviving feature of the Roman games was when a gladiator fell h
VILLAINS REVENGEVILLAIN’S REVENGE The Roles of the “Villain” in Shakespeare’s Plays M.A. student Early Modern Theatre, essay 2 14, January, 2004-1-14 Among the numerous roles in Shakespeare’s plays, there are some villains profoundly depicted, each exhibiting some unique features in personality and mindset. Their villainousness is so striking that the reader of the plays cannot help contemplating the dark side of human nature and exploring the motives of their evil behavior. Some of the villains --- represented
Homosexuality and Misogyny in Greek LifeHomosexuality and Misogyny in Greek Life Feminine equality and the need of a male female relationship, these two ideas are what many people believe in today’s society to have always been around since the beginning of time. But these people are wrong because both misogyny and homosexuality have been around for thousands of years and in this paper I intend to converse about homosexuality and misogyny in the time of Greek antiquity compared to how Aristophanes portrays it in Lysistrata. In this ess
ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH An abbreviation is a shorter way to write a word or phrase. People use abbreviations for words that they write a lot. The English language often uses the apostrophe mark ' to show that a word is written in a shorter way, but some abbreviations do not use this mark. Some abbreviations use the period mark, especially the ones that come from the Latin language. Some examples of common English abbreviations are don't for do not , shouldn't for should not , etc. for et cetera
Studying DramaStudying Drama Semester: WS 2003/2004 Abgabetermin: 8. Dezember 2003 Summary of Michael Patterson`s: “Studying Drama” The text „Studying Drama“ written by Michael Patterson deals with the question how drama as a literary genre really works and with its development from its origins in Ancient Greece till nowadays. At the beginning of the text Patterson exemplifies the general characteristics of a play. In a play environment and setting are not described directly to the reader like in a novel thos
Egyptian HistoryEgyptian History History Egypt has one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. Its history spans over five millennia. The pharaohs ruled Egypt for about 3 000 years until it was conquered by the Greeks, then by the Romans. In 639 AD, it was conquered by Islams from Syria . In 1517 the Ottomans took over until Napoleon came to Egypt in 1798. Egypt remained under English and French domination until the 1950’s, until the revolution of 1952. Traditions and Customs As in their holy book the Q
Throughout the history of ancient Rome and Greece drama remained a refThroughout the history of ancient Rome and Greece drama remained a reflection of the nature of their contemporary society. “The function of the poet is to imitate, through the media appropriate to the given art (drama), not particular historical events, characters, emotions, but the universal aspects of life impressed on his mind by observations of real life. It is closer to reality than the concrete situation, since the universal is truer than the particular.”–Aristotle. Aristotles poetics. Cha
The Evolution of Greek TheaterThe Evolution of Greek Theater 1 One of the most famous things related to Ancient Greece is theater. No one is sure who personally started theater, but Greek theater began all theater in Europe and had major influences on plays performed today. Drama was performed for special occasions and as contests, with the playwright and actors winning prizes. Playwrights originally acted, but when contests began, they stopped. Actors were semi-professional and usually selected and paid by the state. The th
Character development in Fifth Business and the role of name changes Character development in Fifth Business, and the role of name changes Robertson Davies’s novel, the Fifth Business, is full of symbolism, magic, saints, miracles and myths. Its characters are rich and colourful. Just like in classic theatre plays, there are five main characters in the book, two female ones and three male characters: the Hero, the Villain and the so called “fifth business”, who helps the story move along. The book’s main character, Dunstable Ramsey, plays a similar role in peopl
1 The Greek God Dionysus was honored in fifth century Athens by drama 1. The Greek God Dionysus was honored in fifth century Athens by drama festivals. Describe and name these festivals. Clearly demonstrate the differences between them. The main festivals were the Greater or city Dionysia and the Lesser or Rural Dionysia. There were other smaller festivals that where held in Athens at the time: the Oschophoria, the Anthesteria and the Leanaea. These festivals most likely originated from fertility rites. The festivals honored Dionysus Eleuthereus. All the festivals
The tales of Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift is a wide known story The tales of Gulliver’s Travels, by Jonathan Swift, is a wide known story. For more then two and a half centuries, Gulliver’s Travels has been read by children for pleasure. Terry Gilliam’s “The Adventures of Baron Munchausen” is much the same. It can be compared to Gulliver’s Travels in many ways. “The Adventures of Baron Munchausen” has been given the subtitle “Gulliver Revived” for the following reasons; the adventures both Gulliver and Munchausen partake, political hierarchy, and satire. Th
Greek DramaGreek Drama 700 B.C. was the time and Athens, Greece was the place. Religion was a large part of daily life. Many festivals were being held in honor of the ancientGreek gods. One festival is mainly accredited with the invention of Greek Drama. This festival called the City Dionysia was held in honor of the Greek god Dionysus, the son of Zeus. Dionysus was the god of everything fun (such as wine, sex, and parties). Although these festivals were fun they were also a very spiritual time for the p
Isadora Duncan was an American dancer whose creation of an expressive Isadora Duncan was an American dancer, whose creation of an expressive dance style based on the ancient Greeks laid the foundations for the modern dancers of the twentieth century. Isadora Duncan was born Dora Angela Duncan in Sanfrancisco, California, 1877. Isadora's parents were divorced shortly after her birth, and her poor but romantic mother filled her children with the sounds of music and notions of uncoventuality. Isadora showed an early talent for dance and left school at the age of ten
NEW ATLANTIS NEW ATLANTIS WE sailed from Peru, where we had continued by the space of one whole year, for China and Japan, by the South Sea, taking with us victuals for twelve months; and had good winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five months' space and more. But then the wind came about, and settled in the west for many days, so as we could make little or no way, and were sometimes in purpose to turn back. But then again there arose strong and great winds from the south, with a point east; whi
MACBETHMACBETH The use of the Classical Tragic Mold in character development In Shakespeare's tragedy, Macbeth, there are many characters. Only one character stands out, and his name is in the title of the play. Macbeth's character was made in the mold of the ancientGreek tragic hero. Besides being endowed by Shakespeare with an abundance and variety of potential traits and characteristics, Macbeth also follows the Classical Tragic Mold, which is presented with a hefty supply of hubris, and in this ca
Alexander IIIAlexander III According to Plutarch, Alexander was born on the sixth of Hecatombaeon (July) in the year 356 B.C. He was the son of Philip, king of Macedon,and Olympias. Supposedly on the day he was born the temple of Artemis burnt down, signifying his future glory. Not much is known of the youth of Alexander. It is known that he was taught by Aristotle and had a love of the Greek epic poems. One famous story from his youth is told in Plutarch's life of Alexander. Philonius the Thessalian brought
The Rise of Gladiatorial Combat in RomeThe Rise of Gladiatorial Combat in Rome Gladiatorial contests (munera gladitoria), hold a central place in our perception of Roman behavior. They were also a big influence on how Romans themselves ordered their lives. Attending the games was one of the practices that went with being a Roman. The Etruscans who introduced this type of contest in the sixth century BC, are credited with its development but its the Romans who made it famous. A surviving feature of the Roman games was when a gladiator
English Coursework - Blood Brothers by Willy Russell English Coursework - Blood Brothers, by Willy Russell In the play 'Blood Brothers', what techniques does Willy Russell use to attract and maintain the audiences interest? Further to your comments, explain how, given the opportunity, you would direct, Act five Scene five. Willy Russell was born just outside Liverpool. His father owned a chip shop and his mother worked in a warehouse. At school he was a failure but during English silent reading lessons he realized he wanted to be a writer. He lef
Strange weather in King Lear CRITICISM Strange weather in King Lear Steve Mentz* St John’s University, New York, USA This article argues that King Lear can help re-shape the emerging discourse of eco-criticism. The play’s focus on human dis-harmony with the non-human environment resonates with recent developments in ecological science like the ‘‘post-equilibrium shift’’. Shakespeare’s representations of dis-equilibrium in the storm scenes can correct eco-criticism’s reliance on pastoral and Romantic visions of harmony. The