Stacey Hansen
310565
AMX 315/316
Final Essay

A Mirror of Britain?

The decline of Britain from 1945 to the present had a great affect on
the way the country was portrayed through films and cinema during that time
period. Post-war Britain and the political aspects of the country directly
affected how and what the film industry produced. Through each period of
time up until the present, a certain type of film emerged to accompany the
present attitude in Great Britain.
Cinema in the UK was disrupted by World War Two and was brought into
government control. A shift was made in the industry towards propaganda to
encourage movie-goers to support the war and build up their sense of
patriotism for Great Britain. It was a great attempt at increasing
attendance, boosting moral of citizens and troops alike, in addition to
increasing their national identity. While this type of film was very
successful domestically, it was an unsuccessful export due to the regional
focus.
Following the war, Britain went into a deep depression. May 8th,
1945 was declared Victory Europe (VE) Day, though there was not much left
to celebrate. "Twenty-five percent of the wealth, supplies, housing and
trading market was lost."[1] The war left the whole of the UK quite broke.
This depression brought about two themes in the cinema. The first was
depictions of war. These films told of the fighting and the deaths and the
lack of food faced by many of the soldiers fighting in the war. The film
may not be British, but \'All Quiet on the Western Front\' was a very
depressing depiction based on the realities of fighting in the war.
Soldiers lost everyone they knew while fighting and had to live on very
little food. This film was a very true to life, no holds barred type of
story. The second theme brought about by post-war depression was a
depiction of patriotism. These films told of how the people will come
together and rebuild the country. They describe how Great Britain will
become a truly united kingdom. There was a lot of work to do and the
people needed motivation.
Through the development of these films came the racy melodramas, in
addition to the theatrical comedy. The Ealing Studio was the first actual
film studio in the UK, producing whimsically fun comedies with a dark and
ironic feel. These films starred characters fighting the system and
government interference. An example of this film would be Passport to
Pimlico. This film brought Alec Guiness to the screen, who then became an
international film star. Passport to Pimlico shows the ordinary moments of
life after the war. Prior to the development of film stars on screen,
there were literary adaptations made into films. Novels such as those that
were written by Charles Dickins, were made into films which were created of
a higher cultural status. For actors, it was a lesson for acting in film
and was, in essence, a transition stage for the industry. There were no
stars on screen and no constant production like we see today. It was
difficult to hold a career in film and starring in films in the UK became a
transitory period which led to an exodus of British actors to the United
States.
In the 1950s, exports in the UK had become virtually non-existent and
the devaluation of the pound had severely affected the economy. Cinema had
declined into a cliché and risked becoming a Hollywood colony. To combat
this, a tax was levied to prevent American films from washing out the UK
industry. A 75% import tax was placed on these films in addition to a
quota scheme, allowing only a certain number of American films to be
imported per year. This was an unsuccessful attempt for several reasons.
The American industry found loopholes by producing their films in the UK,
television began mimicking film, and the population began to move from city
to suburbs, which did not have cinemas. With this time period came
increased bearacracy, race riots, the end of repression, flourishment of
the youth culture and revolution of the classes. Around this time came a
critical new development called the \'angry young men.\' These men would
rant against Britain and the politics of the day. There was expression of
the soullessness of the working class, pessimist acting and drama, sexual
films such as \'Taste of Honey,\' and realism became a cliché.
Around 1954 and 1955 the Free Cinema movement developed. It stressed the
importance and significance of every day life, thus bringing about the
\'kitchen-sink