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St. Thomas Aquinas
Natural law theory
Just war theory
Natural Law is a set of morals, based on what are
assumed to be the everlasting characteristics of human
nature, that serves as a standard for evaluating conduct
and civil laws. It is considered essentially enduring and
astronomically relevant, because of the double meaning of
the word nature, the meaning of natural varies. Thus,
natural law may be considered an ideal to which humanity
aspires or a general fact, the way human beings usually
act. Natural law is contrasted with positive law, the
enactment’s of civil society.
Christians found the natural law ideology of the Stoics
quite compatible with their beliefs. The teaching of St.
Thomas Aquinas on the natural law is the most widely known.
Aquinas called the rational guidance of creation by God the
“Eternal Law." The Eternal Law gives all beings the
tendency of these actions and aims that are proper to them.
Rational creatures, by directing their own actions and
guiding the actions of others, share in godly reason
itself. “This participation in the Eternal Law by rational
creatures is called the Natural Law." Its dictates
correspond to the basic bias of human nature. Thus,
according to Aquinas it is possible to distinguish good
from evil by the natural light of reason.
Just War, based on Roman thought, is the traditional
Roman Catholic position on fighting a war. It lays down the
criteria for fighting a war. Just cause, declares, waged by
legitimate political authority. War must be started as last
resort. Just methods must be used in war. Must expect
flourishing outcome of war. Results must be less evil that
if war not undertaken. Worriers must have just intentions.
Finally, war must be carried out as a path to better
condition of peace.
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Social philosophy, Thomas Aquinas, Scholasticism, Philosophy of religion, Divine command theory, Natural law, Jurisprudence, Just war theory, Good and evil, Reason, Positive law, Treatise on Law
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