Russia


Russia has been known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, it was changed in 1991to Russia. When Russia was part of the Union it was called the Russian Federation.
Russia is 6,592,800 square miles; it is the world's largest country, almost twice the size of China and the United States. Russia covers almost all of Europe and all of northern Asia .It covers 4,800 miles along the Arctic Circle and 1,250 to 1,800 miles north to south. Its landscape is mostly rolling and flat. The Ural Mountains, the boundary of Europe and Asia, divides the country. Russia also has active volcanoes in the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril Islands.
In Russia the are ethnic in religion. This religion makes up more than 80% of the population. Some of the most popular cities are St. Petersburg, Novoosibirsk, Nizhni, Novgorod, and the capital of both the Soviet Union and Russia is Moscow. Russia has the longest border of any country Earth. In the west it borders Norway, Finland, the Gulf of Finland, Estonia, and Latvia .In the southwest it borders Ukraine and in its south it borders China and the Black Sea.
With a population of more than 148.5 million in the early 1990s, Russia ranks sixth in the world after China, India, the United States, Brazil, and Indonesia. Of all the 15 former Soviet Union republics, Russia has the greatest ethnic diversity, with about 75 distinct nationalities. Russians make up about 82 percent of the total, and only three others constitute more than 1 percent each.
As a whole, Russia's rate of population growth is well below that of previous decades, resulting primarily from a decline in the birthrate of the Russian majority. Rates among minority peoples continue to grow particularly those with Muslim backgrounds. Migration from European Russia to Siberia and the Far East has resulted in regional variations.
Russia, especially the Urals and Siberia, is rich in industrial resources. It contains perhaps the world's largest iron-ore deposit, the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. The Urals contain almost every mineral but are short of coal. Coal is mined in the Pechora, Kuznetsk, and Kansk-Achinsk basins. Petroleum and natural gas are extracted in western Siberia.
Because of its great size, its natural resources, and its political domination, the Russian Federation played a leading role in the economy of the Soviet Union. In the years preceding the union in 1991, the economy of Russia and the union as a whole was in decline. In 1992, immediately after the dissolution, the Russian government implemented a series of radical reforms. Price controls were abolished as the beginning of a transition from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy. An immediate series of sharp price increases caused extreme hardships for the Russian people.
Russia was in trouble until the Bolsheviks, under the leadership of Lenin, officially established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Dec. 30, 1922 .The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic dominated the Soviet Union for its entire 74-year history.
The Russian Federation was by far the largest of the republics; Moscow, its capital, was also the capital of the Soviet Union. In 1991 the Soviet Union was destroyed. Boris Yeltsin was elected president of Russia. As economic conditions worsened, hard-line former Communists who controlled the idea opposed him. He dissolved the idea on Sept. 21, 1993, and set new bill elections for December. When the legislators rose up in armed rebellion, Yeltsin used the army to remove them from office on October 4. He then assumed control of the government.
The roots of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were deep. Russia had suffered under an extremely oppressive form of government for centuries under the rule of the czars. During the 19th century the nation was filled with movements for political liberalization.
In the long run there were several revolutions, not one. The first rebellion, known as the Decembrist uprising, took place in December 1825. Members of the upper classes, including many former soldiers, staged a rebelion after the death of Alexander I. The rebellion failed, but it provided an inspiration to succeeding generations of followers.
The next revolution took place in 1905, after the Russo-Japanese War, which Russia lost. It appeared briefly that the public would force Czar Nicholas II to establish a constitutional monarchy. Such a change