Results of operations. Intel broke a record in net revenues in 1995, for the ninth consecutive year, rising by 41% from 1994 to 1995 and by 31% from 1993 to 1994. Higher volumes of the rapidly raising Pentium microprocessor family, partially offset by lower prices, and increased sales of related board-level products were responsible for most of the growth in revenues in 1994 and 1995. Revenues from the Intel486 microprocessor family declined substantially in 1995 due to a shift in market demand toward the Company's Pentium microprocessors and lower Intel486 microprocessor prices.

Higher volumes of flash memory and chipset products also contributed toward the increase in revenues from 1993 to 1995 and also helped enable the successful Pentium microprocessor ramp. Sales of system platforms, embedded control products, and networking and communications products also grew.

Cost of sales increased by 40% from 1994 to 1995 and by 71% from 1993 to 1994. The growth in cost of sales from 1993 to 1995 was driven by Pentium microprocessor and board-level unit volume growth, new factories coming into production, shifts in process and product mix, and in the fourth quarter of 1995, by costs associated with unusually high reserves related to inventories of certain purchased components. Gross margin for the fourth quarter of 1994 included the impact of a $475 million charge, primarily to cost of sales, to cover replacement costs, replacement material and an inventory record related to a divide problem in the floating point unit of the Pentium microprocessor. As a result of the above factors, the gross margin percentage was 52% in 1995 and 1994, compared to 63% in 1993.

Quarterly unit shipments of the Pentium microprocessor family passed those of the Intel486 microprocessor family during the third quarter of 1995. The Company helped accelerate this transition by offering chipsets and motherboards to enable computer manufacturers to bring their products to market faster. Sales of the Pentium microprocessor family comprised a majority of the Company's revenues and a substantial majority of its gross margin during 1995. During 1995, the Intel486 microprocessor family represented a significant but rapidly declining portion of the Company's revenues and gross margins. The Intel486 microprocessor family comprised a majority of the Company's revenues and a substantial majority of its gross margin during 1993 and 1994.

Research and development spending grew by 17% from 1994 to 1995, as the Company continued to invest in strategic programs, particularly for the internal development of microprocessor products and related manufacturing technology. Increased spending for marketing programs, including media merchandising and the Company's Intel Inside cooperative advertising program, drove the 27% increase in marketing, general and administrative expenses from 1994 to 1995.

The $28 million decrease in interest expense from 1994 to 1995 was mainly due to lower average borrowing balances in addition to higher interest capitalization resulting from increased facility construction programs. The increase in interest expense from 1993 to 1994 was primarily due to higher average interest rates on borrowings, partially offset by higher interest capitalization.

The Company utilizes investments and corresponding interest rate swaps to preserve principal while enhancing the yield on its investment portfolio without significantly increasing risk, and uses forward contracts, options and swaps to hedge currency, market and interest rate exposures. Gains and losses on these instruments are generally offset by those on the underlying hedged transactions; as a result, there was no material net impact on the Company's financial results during the 1993-1995 period.

The Company's effective income tax rate increased to 36.8% in 1995 compared to 36.5% and 35.0% in 1994 and 1993, respectively. The increases in rate from 1993 to 1995 resulted from the fact that tax credits have not grown as rapidly as overall pretax income.

Financial condition. The Company's financial condition remains very strong. As of December 30, 1995, total cash and short- and long-term investments totaled $4.11 billion, down from $4.54 billion at December 31, 1994. Cash generated from operating activities rose to $4.03 billion in 1995, compared to $2.98 billion and $2.80 billion in 1994 and 1993, respectively.

Investing activities consumed $2.69 billion in cash during 1995, compared to $2.90 billion during 1994 and $3.34 billion during 1993. Capital expenditures increased substantially in both 1994 and 1995, as the Company continued to invest in the