PURPOSE : In this particular laboratory experiment
This essay PURPOSE : In this particular laboratory experiment has a total of 1883 words and 12 pages.
PURPOSE : In this particular laboratory experiment, we are going to determine the molar mass of an unknown gas, from the gas density. We are also going to use gas density, along with the kinetic molecular theory, to explain the behavior of gas filled balloons. Finally, we are going to demonstrate the effects of temperature and pressure changes of gasses.
PROCEDURE : We are using the experimental procedure as described in our laboratory manual.
University of Wisconsin - River Falls
Molar Mass From Gas Densities
Pages 81 & 82
There are no changes to this laboratory or from the indicated laboratory procedure.
MATERIALS and APPARATUS :
Part A-1: In this part of the experiment, we are going to observe three balloons filled each with one of three different gasses. So as part of our materials we need to have three balloons as well as the three gasses. These balloons were already prepared for us and we kept underneath the fume hood for observation.
Helium Sulfur Exofluoride
4.002602 g. 146.06 g.
Laboratory Stock Laboratory Stock
Part A-2-5c: During this part of the experiment, our materials and equipment consisted of one, clean, dry, 500mL plastic bottle with an airtight cover. Along with the bottle we need an electronic balance, a thermometer set up to measure the air temperature, as well as a barometer with a chart on how to interpret the readings. Finally we must have the six different gasses with which to do our experiment.
Distilled Water Helium
33.00674 g. 4.002602 g.
Laboratory Stock Laboratory Stock
31.9988 g. 39.948 g.
Laboratory Stock Laboratory Stock
Carbon Dioxide Propane
44.0098 g. 44.09652 g.
Laboratory Stock Laboratory Stock
Part A-6: In this particular part of the experiment we made two different balloons. Therefore we need the balloons themselves, as well as the two different gasses that are going to go into the balloons. One of the balloons needed to be filled with Helium and then the other one with Carbon Dioxide. Then the balloons were to be taken back to our place of residence for observation.
Helium Carbon Dioxide
4.002602 g. 44.0098 g.
Laboratory Stock Laboratory Stock
Part B-1: For this part of the experiment we needed a balloon filled with air. We also tried this part of the experiment when the balloon was filled with two other gasses. A total of three more balloons will be needed for this lab then. We also needed some liquid nitrogen for this experiment. In addition to the liquid nitrogen, we need a pair of tongs to remove the gas filled balloon from the nitrogen.
Helium Carbon Dioxide
4.002602 g. 44.0098 g.
Laboratory Stock Laboratory Stock
** Please note that Liquid Nitrogen is at an extreme temperature of
77 K. This will burn skin as well as freeze most objects it comes
into contact with. Take extreme caution.
Part B-2: For this part of the experiment, we needed a large water bath full of cold water. Additionally we need to have brought an empty soda can with us to class. ( I prefer Coca-Cola myself ) Then, on a ring stand over the wire gauze, we heated up ten milliliters of water in the can over a Bunsen burner. The goal was to turn all of the water to steam and keep as much as possible within the can. After the water had all turned to steam, we used the lab tongs and inverted the can in to the cold water, very quickly.
Part B-3: This final part of the experiment was demonstrated by our instructor. Our instructor used a bell jar and three different balloons filled with air, helium and one with water, to show the effects that the atmosphere around us has on different gasses and on water.
OBSERVATION and DATA :
Part A-1: In the table below, there are recorded observations from the three different balloons that were placed under the hood for us to observe. There were three different balloons, each filled a different gas.
He balloon feels light, the balloon rises in our atmosphere, there is a medium pressure
consistency feeling to the outside of the balloon
SF6 the balloon feels very full and tight, compared to the others this balloon feels very
heavy, this balloon feels like it would not float as easily as the rest of the balloons.
NH3 of all the three, this appears to be the lightest and most thin pressure consistency,
feels most light but does not respond to the atmosphere as well as the others
Part A2-5a: During this part of the experiment, all we did was measure the densities of the
Topics Related to PURPOSE : In this particular laboratory experiment
Industrial gases, Refrigerants, Helium, Chemical elements, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Balloon, Sulfur hexafluoride, Hot air balloon, Propane, Toy balloon, Ammonia, Nitrogen
Essays Related to PURPOSE : In this particular laboratory experiment
The Enviromnetal Degradation as a Result of OverpopulationThe Enviromnetal Degradation as a Result of Overpopulation 1 Introduction There are simply too many people on our planet, and the population is not showing any signs of slowing down(see Figure 1). It is having disastrous effects on our environment. There are too many implications and interrelationships to discuss in this paper, but the three substances that our earth consists of: land, water and air, are being destroyed. Our forests are being cut down at an alarming rate, bearing enormous impact
Problems Caused By Air PollutionProblems Caused By Air Pollution Some people think that air pollution is not harming the earth or the people, but it is doing worse, by killing the earth and getting people sick. Air pollutants, according to Gay, are known to cause respiratory diseases, cancer, and other serious illnesses (12). Air pollution not only threatens the health and life of humans but also causes damage to the environment (Gay 13). First, air pollution causes a great deal of health problems. Wanting clean air is a g
AIR POLUTIONAIR POLUTION Problem The first thing people see, in the morning, when they walk outside is the sky or the colored sun. Is this world giving us the privilege of seeing the natural colors of the sun through all the layers of pollution within the air (Dinanike 31)? Not only are beautiful sights such as this hidden behind the pollution this world causes everyday, but an increase in diseases, infections and death occurs. What causes pollution? What can we do to prevent it, and get rid of it? Is it fa
Global WarmingGlobal Warming The greenhouse effect, in environmental science, is a popular term for the effect that certain variable constituents of the Earth's lower atmosphere have on surface temperatures. It has been known since 1896 that Earth has been warmed by a blanket of gasses (This is called the greenhouse effect.). The gases--water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)--keep ground temperatures at a global average of about 15 degrees C (60 degrees F). Without them the average would
Humans Soon to be Extinct Say it ain't soHumans Soon to be Extinct... Say it ain't so!! by Ryan Shoquist English 121 Dr. Gilliard November 23, 1996 Table of Contents Abstract.....................................page Body.........................................pages Bibliography.................................page Appendix.....................................pages Structured List.........................page Figures.................................page Figures.................................page Figures...............................
An Ecosystem's Disturbance by a PollutantAn Ecosystem's Disturbance by a Pollutant Paul Cordova L. Lehr December 11, 1995 Freedman defines a pollutant as the occurrence of toxic substances or energy in a larger quality then the ecological communities or particular species can tolerate without suffering measurable detriment (Freeman, 562). Although the effects of a pollutant on an organism vary depending on the dose and duration (how long administered). The impact can be one of sublethality to lethality, all dependent upon the factor
Study of Environmental Issues Associated with IndustrializationStudy of Environmental Issues Associated with Industrialization Although our industrial ways seem to be a very progressive step into the future, there are many flaws to the way many things are today. Things have definitely changed over the past century, as we can currently do things much more efficiently then before. The cost of this efficiency may seem inexpensive in many ways, however we do not realize that the cost of these new technologies do not just include money, time and labour, but it a
The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect Our world is suffering, and it is suffering from something people call the Greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is caused by humans over pollution of the earth. If we do not stop this soon the earth will die. We have caused this over many years of over industrialization in this growing world. We think that bigger is better, so we make vehicles bigger and better, and we make pretty much everything else bigger as well. So we make larger factories to build these larger
Water Pollution Is it as big of a problem as we thinkWater Pollution: Is it as big of a problem as we think? The following essay will be looking at the factors that cause pollution, and the effect that pollution has on our world today. It will also investigate what it has in store for the future if things do not improve. It will also explore some of the methods used to treat and clean-up wastewater, and oil spills. Today, the industrialization of Canada is severely affecting this nations lakes, streams, and rivers. If something is not done to impr
Steps Towards an Ecosociety Dealing with Air PollutionSteps Towards an Ecosociety: Dealing with Air Pollution By: Jonathan Roitman For: Dr. Rao Course: Poli 385/2 This essay identifies and explains the problem of pollution facing humanity today. It will also propose one of the first ideas which could more effectively limit air pollution, Emission Credit Trading. This can be seen as one of the first steps in the development of an ecosociety. The notion of a viable ecosociety has created considerable problems in terms of deciding the most effective a
To What Extent Does Acid Precipitation Affect AnnelidsIn order to trul To What Extent Does Acid Precipitation Affect Annelids? In order to truly understand acid rain and it's eventual effect onearthworms, it would be best to look at the causes of acid rain. How andwhy does altered acidity in precipitation have a devastating effect? Acid rain is charecterized as Precipitation that has a pH lower than about5.0 (Allaby, Michael (1994) Ecology, Oxford Press,). Acid rain is createdby many things, of which pollution from cars contributes the most. Eversince the Indust
Nitrogen Nitrogen Nitrogen, symbol N, gaseous element that makes up the largest portion of the earth's atmosphere. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. Nitrogen is in group 15 (or Va) of the periodic table. Nitrogen was discovered by the British physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772 and recognized as an elemental gas by the French chemist, Antoine Laurent Lavoiser about 1776. Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless tasteless, nontoxic gas. It can be condensed into a colorless liquid, which can be compressed into
The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth's surface Approximate The sea is the most obvious feature of the earth's surface. Approximately seventy percent of this surface is covered by water, in one way or another. Beneath this water are the familiar sands of the beaches, bottoms of bays, and the inshore ocean. Farther offshore this water covers an amazing submarine topography of underwater canyons, trenches, mountains, and plains. Unlike the continents, which are physically separated from one another, the oceans are continuous and interconnected. Since the
Water Pollution Word Count: 723 Water pollution needs to be stopped. Pollution of lakes rivers, streams, and oceans has been killing land and water animals for years. Polluting water is a horrible act and will be stopped. Water pollution kills all kinds of animals every year. Just the EXXON VALDEZ oil spill near anchorage Alaska caused over 3,000 otters to die 36,000 different kinds of seabirds were killed and over 100 eagles. -Oil spills are one of--if not the worst types of pollution. They happen most often
HYDROGEN HYDROGEN Hydrogen, symbol H, is reactive, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gaseous element. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The element is usually classed in group 1 of the periodic table. Hydrogen was confused with other gases until the a British chemist demonstrated in 1766 that it was evolved by the action of sulfuric acid on metals and also showed at a later date that it was an independent substance that combined with oxygen to form water. The British chemist Joseph Priestley named th
Volcanoes Volcanoes By Tricia Severson 2nd hour Science 4/30/98 A volcano is a vent, or opening, in the surface of the Earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt. The word also refers to the form or structure, usually conical, produced by accumulations of erupted material. Volcanoes occur mainly near plate tectonic boundaries and are especially common around the Pacific basin, called the Pacific Ring of Fire (see Plate Tectonics). Humanity has long been awed by this powerful force of
Air pollution Air pollution Here΄s a little introduction to this project. There are always two ways to look at something. There is the good way, which in this case would mean looking at all the positive effects that human intervention has created, These are very few if there are any at all! Also, there is the other way. This would be the bad way consisting of basic criticism of all the negative effects that human intervention has caused. These are quite a few and therefore we shall talk about them. Fortunate
Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCs are a family of man-made gases used for various industrial purposes. First developed in the 1920's in the United States, CFCs have been used in large quantaties since 1950. The industrialized countries can account for over 80% of CFCs use. CFC-11 is used primarily as a propellant in aerosol cans, although its use has been phased out it is still used in the production of plastic foams. CFC-12 is used in foam production as well as cooling coals of refrigerators and
The Kyoto Protocol and CanadaThe Kyoto Protocol and Canada Introduction In this paper on The Kyoto Protocol and Canada, I plan on covering different aspects of how Canada is directly related to a substantial part of this Protocol. There is a large debate on whether or not Canada should ratify the Protocol, and generally speaking for Canadians that is, businesses are apposed to the ratification and with good reason. The ratification for the most part will cause the business sector an extreme amount of money to meet the stand
Acid RainAcid Rain Acid rain forms when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with moisture in the atmosphere to produce rain, snow, or another kind of precipitation. This kind of pollution may also be suspended in fog or deposited in a dry form. Acid rain is most common in North America and Europe. Acid rain has also been detected in other areas of the world such as tropical rain forests of Africa. Canada has placed limitations on the sulfur emissions. The United States has not, so the emissions may stil
Global WarmingGlobal Warming Mission Plan a. Analysis of the Problem 1. History of the Problem Some scientist's have been concerned since 1896 about what might happen if there were 5.5 billion tons carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. In 1961 a British scientist did an experiment showing that the carbon in the air was absorbing some of the sun's radiation. Afterward a Swedish scientist, Suante Arrhenius, found out if the radiation of the sun was trapped in the carbon dioxide the temperature of the earth would in
Global Warming Global Warming Global Warming, aside from pollution is one of scientists biggest concerns. Global Warming is caused by the Greenhouse effect. There are 4 steps in the Greenhouse effect. 1-Sunlight radiates from the sun, through space, to Earths atmosphere. 2- The sunlight enters the atmosphere and hits Earth. Some of it turns into heat energy in the form of infrared light. The heat gets absorbed by surrounding air and land, which in turn makes it warm. 3- Infrared rays, that are remitted into
What more must be done to save the planet Earth from pollutionWhat more must be done to save the planet Earth from pollution? Planet earth is dying: the ozone layer is depleting, global temperatures are rising, polar ice caps are melting, the air has become a dwelling for toxic vapours and the ground is being impregnated with tonnes of harmful waste. In mans attempt to dominate earth, he is slowly but painfully destroying this planet by a process termed- pollution. As a result, earth needs to be saved from the introduction of harmful chemicals and substan
Arctic Ozone Loss More Sensitive to Climate Change Than ThoughtArctic Ozone Loss More Sensitive to Climate Change Than Thought May 18, 2004 Chemistry Per. 5 (April 26, 2004) Recently, NASA has conducted studies which help to prove the relationship between Arctic ozone loss and changes in the temperature if the Earths stratosphere. Considering the damage done to the ozone the dangers of the ultra violet radiation is more threatening than ever to the Earths surface. The results of the conducted tests led researchers to believe that the depletion was due not
Acid RainAcid Rain INTRODUCTION: John F. Kennedy once said, The supreme reality of our time is the vulnerability of our planet. This vulnerability has never been so obvious as it is when we consider the devastating effect of acid rain. Acid rain destroys entire ecosystems and jeopardizes our health. The destructive power of this silent killer is evident to everyone who visits the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. The issue of acid rain is not just a local problem; the effect of acid rain on the e
Global Warming The TruthGlobal Warming: The Truth 1 English 101 3rd Draft of MP# 4 According to the National Academy of Sciences, with accelerated global warming during the past two decades, there is now new and stronger evidence that most of the warming over the last 50 years is due to human activities (U.S. EPA 1). These activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gasses occur naturally with in our atmosphere. Energy from the sun drives the ea
Acid RainAcid Rain CONTENTS Summary 1. Introduction 1.1 Terms of reference 1.2 Source of information 2. What is Acid Rain? 2.1 The definition of Acid Rain 2.2 How to Measure Acid Rain? 3. What cause Acid Rain? 3.1 History of Acid rain 3.2 Causes of Acid rain 4. What Are Acid Rain's Effects? 4.1 Water 4.2 Soil 4.3 Plant 4.4 Atmosphere 5. What Society Can Do About Acid Deposition ? 5.1 Understand acid deposition's causes and effects 5.2 Clean up smokestacks and exhaust pipes 5.3 Use alternative energy sour
VolcanoesVolcanoes The countries with the highest volcanic risk are those which contain explosive volcanoes, such as Italy, Indonesia, New Zealand, New guinea, the Philippines, Japan, Russia, he U.S., Mexico, and the countries of Central America. Some of these countries cannot afford to develop effective risk mitigation programs and must look upon industrialized nations for concrete examples of effective risk reduction. The 1902 eruption of Mont Pelee which destroyed the town of Saint Pierre occurred be
Over the past years most individuals have become acutely aware that thOver the past years most individuals have become acutely aware that the intensity of human and economic development enjoyed over the 20th century cannot be sustained. Material consumption and ever increasing populations are already stressing the earths ecosystems. How much more the earth can take remains a very heated issue. Here a look at the facts sheds some very dark light. In 1950, there were 2.5 billion people, while today there are 5.8 billion. There may well be 10 billion people on earth
Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is an increase in the atmospheric temperature caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases. These gases act as a heat blanket insulating the Earth's surface absorbing and trapping heat radiation which normally escapes from the earth. They include carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, CFC's, and other halocarbons. The earth's atmosphere goes through two processes constantly. Global cooling is the first process. This process uses the cloud
A Nuclear ReactorA Nuclear Reactor The term Nuclear Reactor means an interaction between two or more Nuclei, Nuclear Particles, or Radiation, possibly causing transformation of the nuclear type; includes, for example, fission, capture, elastic container. Reactor means the core and its immediate container. Nuclear Reactors are used to produce electricity . The numbers of Nuclear Reactor plants have grown sufficiently . Electricity is being generated in a number of ways, it can be generated by using Thermal Power.
Carbon is one of the most important chemical elements Industry uses it Carbon is one of the most important chemical elements. Industry uses it in a wide variety of products, and all living things are based on carbon. Without carbon, life would be impossible! Yet carbon makes up less than 0.03 percent of the earths crust. Pure carbon exists in nature in the form of diamonds, and in graphite. Both forms are pure carbon with different crystal structures. Another form of pure carbon, called amorphous carbon, consists of graphite-like particles too tiny to see without
Chemistry Essay - Water Chemistry Essay - Water Water covers nearly three quarters of the earth and is present in air, land and, of course, sea. Most living things contain a large proportion of water, the human body is about 60% water. Water is essential for life as we know it. The physical states of water are determined by the structure of its molecules, which in turn is affected by temperature. As ice melts, its rigidly arranged molecules move more and more freely. As water is heated, the molecules move even faster
Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon After Russia, Canada, China and the United States, Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world. It is the biggest country in South America and takes up almost half of the continents area. Its northern part is called Amazonia, after the Amazon river, which runs through it. This region covers 40% of Brazils surface and extends into many of the surrounding countries. It is mostly covered with dense tropical rain forests and contains an enormous variety
Forests cannot absorb CO2 emissions Forests cannot absorb CO2 emissions Mini Research 2.2 The world's dwindling forests cannot be relied upon to absorb the industrialized world's carbon dioxide emissions. Environment ministers and experts from around the world will be meeting in Buenos Aries. There they will try to map a course for industrialized countries as they try to rein in emissions of greenhouse gases in line with the Kyoto treaty, signed last year. A new report tells people that one third of the world's forests are at dyi
The Republic of Croatia The Republic of Croatia Country Report Operations Management Ellen Elkins Friday, August 22, 1997 TABLE OF CONTENTS Country Overview 3 Future Prospects 3 Economic Overview 4 Foreign Investment 5 Currency/Capital Markets 7 Industry 7 The Insurance Regulatory Environment 7 Insurance Market 8 Market Composition 8 Competition 9 Profiles 10 Market Access 11 Distribution 12 Conclusion 12 Country Overview The Republic of Croatia, situated along the eastern coastline of the Adriatic Sea, is an independ
CHLORINE The chemical element chlorine is a poisonous corrosive greeni CHLORINE. The chemical element chlorine is a poisonous, corrosive, greenish-yellow gas that has a sharp, suffocating odor and is 2 1/2 times heavier than air. Volcanic gases sometimes contain a small amount of chlorine gas. Other than that, chlorine is always found combined with other elements. Chlorine is obtained commercially from salt water by electrolysis--that is, by running an electric current through the solution. . Chlorine is changed to its liquid form by compressing the gas, and the l
The main purpose of this paper is to inform people about the causes th The main purpose of this paper is to inform people about the causes, the effects, and the solutions of a major environmental concern, global warming. First the greenhouse effect will be explained and the greenhouse gases will be identified. Each of these gases will be explained in detail and then the effects of these gases will be discussed. Following the effects there will be some solutions as to what can be done to reduce the gases and reduce global warming. Then the conclusion will follow to
Table of Contents Table of Contents AFRICA 2 Agriculture 2 Natural Resources 3 Infrastructure . ... 3 Economy 3 SOUTH AFRICA 5 NIGERIA .8 Suggestion 10 CONCLUSION 10 WORKS CITED 11 Intro Africa has great economic potential brimming with human endeavor, opportunity, abundance and hope. Many write off Africa as the continent of despair, while other entrepreneurs have recognized the huge untapped business venture across the con
The natural greenhouse effect keeps the earth at a temperature suitabl The natural greenhouse effect keeps the earth at a temperature suitable to life; some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unpredictable rate because of human activities. Green house gasses occur in different quantities in the atmosphere and have different physical properties the climate change that is occurring now is disturbingly different from the slow steady cycle of the ice ages and marmings that have sculptured the face of the earth for two million years
The Metallurgy of Copper WireThe Metallurgy of Copper Wire Introduction Copper is the preferred and predominant choice in the electrical industry because of its high conductivity, both electrical and thermal. In order to obtain the required properties, unalloyed high purity copper is almost always used. This article discusses the rationale for this choice, and pays particular attention to the underlying metallurgical principles. It is intended to serve as a technical discussion of pertinent developments spanning the past se
GLOBAL WARMINGGLOBAL WARMING Health Issues Global warming is a serious issue that could eventually end the lives of humans on this planet. It is a slow, but deadly problem that has plagued this planet for countless years. Global warming could eventually raise the level of the sea and put a majority of our world underwater. The best way to stop global warming and its deadly effects on our planet is education. Only when global warming is fully understood can it be stopped Global warming is the adding of gases t
Air PollutionAir Pollution Problem The first thing people see, in the morning, when they walk outside is the sky or the colored sun. Is this world giving us the privilege of seeing the natural colors of the sun through all the layers of pollution within the air (Dinanike 31)? Not only are beautiful sights such as this hidden behind the pollution this world causes everyday, but an increase in diseases, infections and death occurs. What causes pollution? What can we do to prevent it,and get rid of it? Is it fa
Global WarmingGlobal Warming Global Warming The relationship between humans and the state of the ecosystem is not only dependent upon how many people there are, but also upon what they do. When there were few people, the dominant factors controlling ecosystem state were the natural ones that have operated for millions of years. The human population has now grown so large that there are concerns that they have become a significant element in ecosystem dynamics. One of these concerns is the relationship between
PlatinumPlatinum Platinum is a relatively rare, chemically inert, metallic element. It symbol is Pt, atomic number is 78, and its atomic weight is 195.09. Platinum is one of the heaviest substances known. One cubic foot of Platinum weighs 21 times as much as a cubic foot of water. A grayish-white metal, Platinum has a melting point of 1772 degrees C and a realatively high boiling point of 3827 degrees C. It has a high fusing point, is ductile and malleable, expands slightly upon heating, and has high el
SemiconductorsSemiconductors Silicon is the raw material most often used in integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. It is the second most abundant substance on the earth. It is extracted from rocks and common beach sand and put through an exhaustive purification process. In this form, silicon is the purist industrial substance that man produces, with impurities comprising less than one part in a billion. That is the equivalent of one tennis ball in a string of golf balls stretching from the earth to the moon. Se
Air PollutionAir Pollution CFish Mr. Nollen Biology 2B 8 May, 1996 The Problem Contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A byproduct of the radioactive decay of uranium minerals in certain kinds of
Nuclear Energy Uranium FissionNuclear Energy: Uranium Fission Thousands of years ago human beings learned to make fire. By collecting and burning wood they were able to warm themselves, cook food, and manufacture primitive tools. Later, the Egyptians discovered the principal of the sail. Even more recent was the invention of the water wheel. All of these activities utilize various forms of energy-biological, chemical, solar, and hydraulic. Energy, the ability to do work, is essential for meeting basic human needs, extending
The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect, in environmental science, is a popular term for the effect that certain variable constituents of the Earth's lower atmosphere have on surface temperatures. These gases--water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)--keep ground temperatures at a global average of about 15 degrees C (60 degrees F). Without them the average would be below the freezing point of H20. The gases have this effect because as incoming solar radiation strikes the s
Analytical ChemistryAnalytical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry principally concerned with determining the chemical composition of materials, which may be solids, liquids, gases, pure elements, compounds, or complex mixtures. In addition, chemical analysis can characterize materials but determining their molecular structures and measuring such physical properties as pH, color, and solubility. Wet analysis involves the studying of substances that have been submerged in a solution and microan