Psychology Terminology

o Health Psychology – uses behavioral principles to promote health and prevent illness.
o Behavioral medicine – applied psychology to manage medical problems such as diabetes or asthma.
o Behavioral risk factors – are behaviors that increase the chances of disease, injury, and death.
o Disease prone personality – people that tend to be chronically depressed, anxious, hostile, and frequently ill.
o Refusal skills training – role-playing to learn how to resist pressures for drug use.
o Life skills training – Practice in stress-reduction, self- protection, decision-making, self-control and social skills.
o Role model – positive examples.
o Wellness- well being…physically and psychologically healthy.
o Stress- is the mental and physical condition that occurs when a person must adjust to the environment.
o Stress reaction- begins with the same autonomic nervous system that arousal that occurs during emotion.
o Pressure- occurs when a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations.
o Threat – something potentially harmful.
o Primary appraisal- when you decide if a situation is relevant or irrelevant, positive or a threat. (Am I in trouble)
o Secondary appraisal- when you assess your resources and choose a way to meet the threat or challenge. (What can I do about it)
o Problem-focused coping- is aimed at managing or altering a distressing situation.
o Emotion-focused coping- when people try to control their emotional reactions in a situation.
o Frustration- is a negative emotional stat that occurs when people are prevented from reaching desired goals.
o External frustration- based on conditions outside the individual that impede progress toward a goal.
o Personal frustration- based on a personal characteristic. (4 foot person wants to play professional basketball, becomes frustrated with his height.)
o Aggression- any response made with the intent of harming a person or object.
o Displaced aggression- aggression that is redirected toward whomever or whatever is available.
o scapegoating- a pattern known for blaming a person or group for conditions not of their making.
o Scapegoat- a person who is the habitual target of displaced aggression.
o Escape- leaving a source of frustration.
o Conflict- when a person must choose between contradictory needs, desires, motives, or demands.
o Approach-approach conflict- having to choose between two positive things.
o Avoidance-avoidance conflict- having to choose between two negative things. (The devil and the deep blue sea)
o Approach-avoidance conflict- “caught” by being attracted to and repelled by the same goal. (Hot date that has a mean dad.)
o Ambivalence- mixed positive and negative feelings; partial approach. (see the girl at school never date her because of her dad.)