One of the most significant writers of the romantic period in American literature was
Nathaniel Hawthorne. Hawthorne wrote stories that opposed the ideas of Transcendentalism.
Since he had ancestors of Puritan belief, Hawthorne wrote many stories about Puritan New
England. His most famous story is the Scarlet Letter. This novel tells of the punishment of a
woman, Hester Prynne, who committed adultery and gave birth to Pearl. A minister of Boston,
Arthur Dimmesdale, had an affair with Hester while believing that her husband, Roger
Chillingworth, had died. However, Chillingworth did not die and appears during the early stages
of Hester's punishment.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the character of Pearl in the Scarlet Letter. Her
whole life had many difficulties while living in Puritan New England. Furthermore, Pearl displays
much parallelism to the scarlet letter that Hester must wear. Finally, Pearl's birth intensified the
conflicts in the novel. Clearly, Pearl becomes the symbol of all the other major characters'
tragedies.

Chronology
The character of Pearl in the Scarlet Letter lived a very difficult life. Before the novel
begins, Hester Prynne gives birth to Pearl after having an affair with Arthur Dimmesdale, a
Puritan minister. Pearl's birth proves that Hester cheated on her husband Roger Chillingworth
provoking the stories action. The novel opens with the people of Boston staring and laughing at
Hester holding Pearl while standing on the town's scaffold. At this time, Pearl is three months
old. Years later Hester gets released from jail and lives with Pearl in the outskirts of town. Since
Hester becomes alienated from Boston, Pearl turns into "her mother's only treasure!" (Hawthorne
76). Hester makes bright red clothes for Pearl that parallel the scarlet "A." At age three, Pearl
endures many laughs and jokes from other Puritan children but chases them away with stones.
Since Pearl's birth resulted from broken rules, she does not feel the obligation to follow rules.
Although her life is an outcast of Puritan society, Pearl's language shows a high level of
intelligence. Later, Hester receives word that the magistrates want to take Pearl away from her.
Hester takes Pearl to the governor's house where the child meets her father, Arthur Dimmesdale.
After Dimmesdale persuades the governors to allow Hester to keep Pearl, he gives the child a
kiss
on the forehead. This kiss hints that Dimmesdale is Pearl's father.
When Hester and Pearl return from Governor Winthrop's death bed, they join Dimmesdale
standing on the town's scaffold. Pearl asks Dimmesdale "Wilt thou stand here with mother and
me, to-morrow noontide?" (Hawthorne 131) twice. Realizing that Arthur is her father, Pearl
wants him to confess his sin so that the three of them can live peacefully. Next, Hester takes
Pearl for a walk in the woods to meet Dimmesdale. While the two lovers talk and come up with
plans to leave for England, Pearl goes off and plays in the woods. After Hester and Dimmesdale
finish talking, Pearl returns and finds that her mother has removed the scarlet letter. Pearl, who
has grown attached to the "A," throws a temper tantrum until Hester puts the letter back on her
dress. Later, Dimmesdale kisses Pearl, who then runs to a brook and washes off the kiss. Pearl
does not accept Dimmesdale as her father. At the end of the novel, Hester and Pearl go to
England, but Hester returns and dies in Boston. Hawthorne never tells exactly what happened
to
Pearl. The people of Boston have many different ideas about Pearl's fate. For example, some
believe that she died or that she married and received money from Chillingworth's will. The
character of Pearl portrayed a large role in the plot of the Scarlet Letter.


Significance
Nathaniel Hawthorne develops Pearl into the most obvious central symbol of the novel,
the scarlet letter. First, Pearl's birth resulted from the sin of adultery, the meaning of the "A."
Since she came from a broken rule, Pearl does not feel that she has to follow rules. Hawthorne
expresses that "The child could not be made amendable to rules" (Hawthorne 91). Next, Pearl
exhibits the same characteristics as the scarlet letter. For example, the letter contains scarlet
fabric. Hester makes red clothes for Pearl to wear, making her an outcast of Puritan society.
Likewise, wearing the scarlet letter has made Hester an outcast of society. Furthermore, Pearl
grows just as Hester continues to enlarge the letter by adding golden thread. During infancy,
"The letter is the first object that Pearl becomes aware of" (Baym 57). Throughout her life, Pearl
became very attached to the scarlet