Old English


The Old English seems to us as being alienated from the reality because of its spelling, unfamiliar vocabulary and some gramatical differences.


It is possible for students to do good translations os Old English only with a very little bit of training. Looking carefully, we can find a very large number of points that are very near or similar to the comtemporary english.


The Old English is characterised by the use of abbreviations used by the Anglo–Saxon scribes, to speed up the copying of manuscripts, by the spelling, where exist symbols representing souds that are not present in the Latin alphabet.


Most of the words that were used are more closer than we think to the words we user in the present English.


In the grammar point of view, we can see a mixture of familiar and unfamiliar words. The verb is also often put at the end.


The history of English is one of various invasions, with newcomers bringing their own language and lefting behind a considerably amount of vocabulary.


Old English was fisrt written using the Runic alphabet that consisted in twenty-four letters. It is written from left to right and vice versa. The alphabet in its complete sense is called “futhorc”.


From the beginning of the twelfth century, the English language is in a state of change. From this point on, we can call it Middle English.


The language that have influenced English the most, was the French, and by the end of the twelfth century, contemporary accounts suggest that some children of the nobility spoke English as a mother tongue, and that had to be taught Frenck at school.


French was still used in Parliament, the Courts, and in public proceedings.


The linguistic influence of the French in English is more or less about 10,000 words, according to one estimate.


There are some special features, as an example of the use of g for a sound that most other texts of the time were spelling with the symbol (“yough”).


There are still many words that need to be cleared for us to understand their meaning.


The final simplification to the modern system, take place after the Middle English period.


In the field os poetry and prose of the second half of the fourteenth century, we can fing many linguistic developments.


There are several surviving prose texts, especially on religious themes, notably the bible.


The biggest attention has been paid to the major poetic creation of the time.


The evolution of Middle English did not stopped to suffer changes and ajustments in 1400, but big changes took place after this date.


By the end of the fifteenth century, the advent of printing had fundamentally changed the character and quantity of written texts.