Networks

PROXY SERVER

A process providing a cache (A small fast memory holding recently
accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data.
Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local
copy of data accessible over a network etc.) of items available on
other servers (a program which provides some service to other client
programs) which are presumably slower or more expensive to access.

This term is used particularly for a World-Wide Web server (An Internet
client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which
originated from The European Laboratory for Particle Physics, High-Energy
Physics laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland) which accepts URLs (Uniform
Resource Locator which are often used in HTML documents to specify the
target of a hyperlink which is often another HTML document or possibly
stored on another computer) witha special prefix. When it receives a
request for such a URL, it strips off theprefix and looks for the
resulting URL in its local cache. If found, it returns the document
immediately, otherwise it fetches it from the remote server, saves a copy
in the cache and returns it to the requester. The cache will usually have
an expiry algorithm (A detailed sequence of actions to perform to
accomplish some task) which flushes documents according to their age,
size, and access history.

PROXY GATEWAY

A computer and associated software which will pass on a request for a URL
from a World-Wide Web browser such as Mosaic to an outside server and
return the results. This provides clients that are sealed off from the
Internet a trusted agent that can access the Internet on their behalf.
Once the client is properly configured, its user should not be aware of
the proxy gateway.
A proxy gateway often runs on a firewall machine (A dedicated gateway
machine with special security precautions on it, used to service outside
network, especially Internet, connections and dial-in lines). Its main
purpose is to act as a barrier to the threat of crackers. It may also be
used to hide the IP addresses of the computers inside the firewall from
the Internet if they do not use official registered network numbers.

WINDOWS NT

Windows New Technology - Microsoft\'s 32-bit operating system developed
from what was originally intended to be OS/2 3.0 before Microsoft and
IBM ceased joint development of OS/2. NT was designed for high end
workstations (Windows NT 3.1), servers (Windows NT 3.1 Advanced Server)
and corporate networks.
The first release, Windows NT 3.1, price UKP 395, was in September 1993,
after having been in beta-test for as long as anyone could remember.
Unlike Windows 3.1, which was a graphical environment that ran on top of
MS-DOS, Windows NT is a complete operating system. To the user it looks
like Windows 3.1, but it has true multi-threading, built in networking,
security, and memory protection.
It is based on a microkernel, with 32-bit addressing for up to 4Gb of RAM,
virtualised hardware access to fully protect applications, installable
file systems, such as FAT, HPFS and NTFS, built-in networking,
multi-processor support, and C2 security.
NT is also designed to be hardware independent. Once the machine specific
part - the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) - has been ported to a
particular machine, the rest of the operating system should theorertically
compile without alteration. A version of NT for DEC\'s Alpha machines was
planned (September 1993).
NT needs a fast 386 or equivalent, at least 12MB of RAM (preferably 16MB)
and atleast 75MB of free disk space.

PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES

A great place to go to if their are problems with Windows NT or to alter
settings in Windowns NT over a LAN, simply go to the the HELP folder on
the Start Menu, then enter the WINDOWS NT COMMANDS SECTION, and finally
enter, WHAT\'S NEW OR DIFFERENT FROM LAN MANAGER? It is a great place to
visit simply to know more about Windows NT and the network settings and
if you are the adventurous type, try altering some of the contents, but
remember, you didn\'t hear this from me! ;)

NETWORKING

Networking can be the most tedious and boring part of the construction of
a Windows NT sever. This fact is supported by the work of Mr. Boyder and
Mr. Vernon who try to improve the settings and speed of the server.
Unfortunately, other problems often