NAPOLEON I



Napoleon's life was a very interesting one. Starting a poor boy, hated by most, rising to rule a huge empire, and then finally being destroyed by his own arrogance and ending his life humbled, remembering what he had doe, and leaving it all in his memoirs for the world to read.

Napoleon was born in 1769, on the Island of Corsica. His parents, Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte, were poor nobles. When Napoleon was just 10 years old, his father helped to get him a mathematical scholarship to a military school at Brienne. In the school, Napoleon was hated and considered a foreigner. With no friends, Napoleon concentrated on academics, but still only graduated 42nd in us class of 58. he then continued his education at the Military academy of Paris. After one year there, he became second Lieutenant of artillery, at the age of 17. As a Lieutenant, Napoleon did a lot of reading, mainly in the subjects of history, geography, economic affairs, and philosophy.
Napoleon was assigned to a post at the Valence garrison when he became a Lieutenant, but spent most of his time in Corsica, without permission. During one of these visits, Napoleon had trouble with a Corsican nationalist, named Pasquale Paoli, and Napoleon and his family fled to Marseille in 1793.
Later in 1793, the beginning of the French revolution, Napoleon led an artillery brigade to push out a British fleet that the Royalists had allowed in. Napoleon's mission was a success, and he was promoted to general, and was assigned to the army in Northern Italy.
During the early part of the revolution, Napoleon had supported Maximilien Robespierre's revolutionary group, and when Robespiere was overthrown in 1794, Napoleon spent two months in jail for being associated with him.
When he was released from jail, Napoleon refused to fight a rebellion in Vandee, and he lost his military position for it.
In 1795, Paul Barras, the military leader of a soon to be implemented government, asked Napoleon to fight a revolt in Paris, Napoleon accepted, and quickly ended the revolt. When the directory, the government Barras was part of, came into power, they rewarded Napoleon by appointing him the commander of the army of the interior in 1796. He also married Josephine de Beauharrais in the same year.
Later in 1796, Napoleon launched a campaign to push the Austrian and Sardinian armies out of Northern Italy. Napoleon quickly defeated the Sardinians at Mandovi (about 25 miles from current French borders). In a treaty with the Sardinians, France was given Nice and Savoy. He then went further into Italy, pushing into the Lombardy region. He took the stronghold at Mantua after a long siege, and was heading toward Venice with little resistance when the Austrians surrendered, and Napoleon negotiated the treaty of Campo Formio, which ended what is now called the war of the first coalition. While in Italy, Napoleon took large amounts of money and art to bring to France.
When Napoleon returned from Italy, it was suggested that he invade England. Instead, he decided to invade British-owned Egypt. After sneaking by the British navy, Napoleon landed in Egypt, and quickly carried out the occupation. While Napoleon as inland, the British destroyed the French fleet, leaving Napoleon stuck in Egypt.
In early 1799, the Ottoman empire declared war on France. To stop the Ottoman's from invading Egypt, Napoleon invaded Syria, but was turned back by Turkish troops. By mid-1799, the second coalition (formed by the Ottoman's and Austrians) were defeating French forces in Europe, so Napoleon decided to return to France.
When Napoleon arrived in Paris, he began a conspiracy to overthrow the government. He succeeded, and created a new government called the consulate, of which Napoleon became the first consul.
As consul, Napoleon made many good changes in France. He created the Napoleonic code, which set up a complex code of civil law in the nation. He worked with the Pope to reestablish the Roman Catholic faith in France. He also stabilized the French economy, balancing the budget, established a national bank, and restored the value of French bonds.
In the mean time, Napoleon defeated Austria in Marengo, Italy, and signed the treaty of Luneville, ending the war of the second coalition. He also made peace with Britain with the treaty of Amiens. For his accomplishments in his