Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881 in th city of Salonikawhich was then kn
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Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881 in th city of Salonika,which was then known as the port city of Turkish Macedonia,but know part of Greece.Mustafa,who was a Turkish soldier and statesman ,was the founder and the first president of the Turkish republic.
In 1893,Mustafa entered the Military Secondary School in Salonika,and was found to be a very strong-willed and proud child.He was motivated throughout his life by the stern patriotism which was when he saw his own people,the turks exposed by Greeks,Bulgarians,and Serbs who prepared to expel the turks from Europe.
In 1895,he entered the Military Academy at Monastir,and graduated in 1899.He entered the War College in Istanbul after,followed by the Staff College,graduating with the rank of captain in 1905.After graduating,he was locked in prison for a few months from his political activities. He was then released and assigned to organize a secret revolutionary group among his brother officers in the Damascus Garrison. This group grew and became very powerful,and soon this group of reforming politicans overthrew the government and this was called the Young Turks revolution. They along with Mustafa started a number of political and social reforms, and set up a Kingdom headed by the Sultan.After suppressing a counterrevolution in April 1909,Mustafa was excluded from the center of power and was allowed to play a minor part in the Balkan Wars in 1912-1913.
When World War I broke out in 1914, Mustafa was assigned to the embassy in Sofia as a military attache. In 1918 , he held rank of general after repulsing the allied invasion of Gallipoli in 1915.
On May 1919,Mustafa was sent to Anatolia as inspector general,along with the occupation of Smyrna by the Greeks and the moving in on allies which turned despair in the turks into fierce resistance. On July 1919, Mustafa was so proud that he convened a congress at Erzenum , of nationalist delegates representing the eastern provinces and then emerged a proclaim of the right of self-determination of the turkish people,defining all boundaries of their territories and finding ways of protecting them at all costs.
After a much wider and bigger congress convened by Kemal at Sivas in September,a provisional government was allowed to speak for it's nation was formed by his leadership.The British and French troops occupied Istanbul during World War I,and Turkey had been defeated,but Mustafa Kemal rose and showed himself to the Greeks by driving them out of the Aegean regions and was victorious by halting the turkish armies' advances in 1921.
Ataturk soon overthrew the sultan and in 1923 established the Turkish republic with it's capital, Ankara. He also directed himself to the re-creation of Turkey as a modern state in the western pattern.In 1922,the sultanate was abolished and in 1923 ,Turkey was to become a republic with Kemal as it's only choice for it's president. Mustafa became the first president of the new republic.He modernized Turkey by starting new industries and building railways and schools.He made it obligatory to use Latin instead of Arabic characters for writing Turkish in November 1928.
In 1934, Ataturk made his last reforms that changed Turkish society,which were the extension of the franchise to women and compelling the turks to adopt surnames.Kemal took the name of Ataturk which means 'Father of the turks'.
On November 10 1938,Ataturk died leaving the true measure of his complex and contradictory man in the achievements of the new generation of the turks, which he originated and directed and to which remains both an inspiration and an ideal.
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