Most likel, everybody knows about El nino, and they
know that it can affect the weather in a given year.
However, most people do not really understand what el
nino is. Many people have heard all different sorts
of explanations and have formed somewhat of an idea,
but that idea is usually rather distorted.
THe term el nino comes from the Spanish, meaning
little boy, or Christ child. Coined for the tendency
of the phenomenon to arrive around Christmas, usually
every 4 to 5 years, lasting anywhere from 12-18
months.
The El nino or el nino southern oscillation(enso)
phenomenon is a disruption in the eastern equatorial
pacific, which contributes to major climatical
changes throughout the world.
During the disruption, trade winds weaken over the
central Pacific Ocean, resulting in a dramatic rise
in the ocean temperatures and a depression of the
thermocline in the pacific. The thermocline is the
layer of water between the warmer, surface zone and
the colder deep water zone, in a thermally stratied
body of water, in which the temperature decreases
rapidly with depth.
This depression of the thermocline has great effects
on the worlds fishing industry. The cutting of
nutrient rich therocline water reduces the growth of
algae, which in trun, collapses the food chain. Thus,
leaving our worlds subsistence and commercial
fishermen with out food and money.
With the already descendeing food chain on our earth,
the warming water also effects the atmosphere,
resulting in more extreme temperatures, more rain,
and more drought periods, costing more money to our
already debted economy, and the world.
An example(demonstrated here by alaska) brought about
by the extreme temperatures was during the 1976-77 el
nino, which brought severe cold to the polar regions.
The polar regions were so cold, that the bears in
those regions did not hibernate. Studies have shown
in alaska, that there has been increased amounts of
precipitation through out the southern fringe of
alaska from Juneau to Annette Island. Studies have
also shown that the interior parts of alaska, during
an el nino winter recieve normal to below
precipitation levels, resulting in somewhat of a
drought.
An el nino can have various effects on our beloved
Earth. Included in the numerous effects, are
increased/decreased precipitation, more extreme
temperatures, and a quantity of problems related to
the dying chain of life