MOON EXPLORATION


















The U. S. has explored the moon since the 1960,s. "The
Apollo Program" tells why the United States went to the
moon. "The Apollo Spacecraft" tells ho we got to the
moon. "The First Lunar Landing" tells about the first
voyage to the moon. This paper will discus the lunar
landing.

The Apollo progam was made to meet the goal set by
John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961. The goal was to
land a man on the moon and return him to Earth alive
and well.

The program was a succes. There were 11 manned
lunar landings and other test flights totaling 15 manned
flights. Out of all these there was only one major
problem, and no one was injured. There was three
deathes on the lanchpad but none in space.

The Apollo Spacecraft was developed from the work of
two other programs, the Mercury and Gemini Programs.
The actual spacecraft was made of the combined
Command Module and the Service Module also called
the CSM. It was 34ft. long and 10ft. in diameter at the
end. It had a major advantage with its internal guidence
system, that was developed by The Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.


The CSM was made of two parts. The crew stayed in
the Command Module, which had some couches and
was pressurized with oxygen.

Behind the CM was the SM or Service Module which
had the main engine, which had 21,500lb. of thrust.
The reaction control system , oxygen, fuel cells,
hydrogen tanks, and envirnmental control systems. The
main engine was only used for changes in course and
changes in orbit and escape from the lunor orbit.

When the crew came back for reentry the CSM would
split. The Command Module had heat sheilding so it
would not burn-up. When the CM first came into
reentry it was stabilized by its own engines. The
second part was done by three parachutes and a
drogue.

The First Lunar Landing took place on July 16,1969, it
was named Apollo 11. It made the first landing on the
moon on July 20, 1969. Lt. Michael Collins stayed in
the CM and orbited the moon while, Neil Armstrong and
Col. Edwin Aldrin Jr. landed down on the moon. The
landing took place in Mare Tranquillitatis (the Sea of
Tranquility) "at 4:17:42 PM

Eastern Daylight Time with this report:
"Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has
landed."" Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on
the moon. "Dropping the last meter from the ladder he
said: "That,s one small step for {a} man, one giant
leap for mankind" (NASA later reported that the word
"a" had been lost in transmission)." When on the moon
Armstrong and Aldren stup an American flag and left
scientific instruments, including a laser beam reflector,
a sheet of aluminum foil to to trap SOLAR WIND
particles, and a seismometer that later transmitted
evidence of a moonquake. The astronauts took soil
and rock samples and photographs.

At 12:56 AM Eastern Daylight Time on July 22, 1969
the land craft called the LEM, or Lunar Excursion
Module, left the surface and orbit of the moon. They
landed in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969.



Works Cited



"The Apollo Program" Grolier Encyclopedia Inc. 1994

"The Apollo Spacecraft" Grolier Encyclopedia Inc. 1994

"The First Lunor Landing" Grolier Encyclopedia Inc.
1994

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