Key Terms

Pat Garrett- He was born in Alabama, and was a buffalo hunter, cowboy, horse rancher, Texas Ranger, and twice a sheriff. He was the Sheriff of New Mexico in 1880 and in 1897. He was the man who hunted, found, and shot William H. Bonney (a.k.a. "Billy the Kid"). How he died in 1908 is not certain.

Wounded Knee Creek- The site of an Indian Reservation, Wounded Knee is in the Pine Ridge Sioux Reservation, South Dakota. This was the location of the last major battle between federal troops and American Indians. The last major battle conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the U.S. Army took place at Wounded Knee in 1890. Serious injuries were inflicted at Wounded Knee Creek on December 29, 1890. Between 150 and 300 Indians, mostly women and children, were killed by soldiers. The Indians had tried to surrender their guns to the army when a gun accidentally discharged, triggering violent shooting by the army and resulting in the Wounded Knee Massacre.

Ghost Dance- A religious movement started in 1888 by a Paiute Indian named Jack Wilson (a.k.a. "Wovoka"). The belief behind the Ghost Dance was that the world would soon end, the Indians would inherit the earth, and ancestors and buffalo that had died would be revived. Through dancing, Ghost Dancers believed that they could see this future where the world would be theirs. The Ghost Dance became very popular throughout many American Indian tribes and made the Indians ready for war. This was pointed out to the U.S. Army and the Army began to arrest Indian leaders. When Chief Sitting Bull resisted arrest, a gunfight caused 14 deaths, including Sitting Bull. Four Hundred of Sitting Bull's followers left for safety with Sioux Chief Foot. Then the military pursued Chief Big Foot's group, leading to Wounded Knee Massacre.

George Armstrong Custer- He was an American cavalry officer, and is most famous for his "last stand" in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. He was born in New Rumley, Ohio, and went to West Point Academy for training. During the Civil War, after he had he finished last in his class of 1861, he proved himself to be a good cavalry officer. Soon after the war, Custer was assigned lieutenant colonel of the 7th Cavalry to fight against American Indians. In 1873 he was ordered to Dakota Territory to protect railway surveyors and gold miners who were crossing land owned by the Sioux. After three years of off and on battles, the American Army decided to blow the Indians away. So, they formed a three-way attack. Custer's cavalry was part of this attack. On June 24, 1876, Custer's regiment came across an encampment of Indians, but his estimation of how many people were there was way too low. He attacked the encampment on the next morning, but his regiment was outnumbered, and Cus!
ter along with 264 of his men, were killed.

Dawes Act- Sponsored by Senator Henry Laurens Dawes, this act was intended to promote the integrating of the Indians into the homesteading way of life. Its main effect was to clear up space taken by the Indians for white settlers. This act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1887, and took away tribal lands from the Indians. In return, the Indians would receive individual land grants. Indian tribes were officially abolished under this act. Each male head of an Indian family could claim 160 acres of reservation land as a farm. Bachelors and women could claim a smaller amount. After 25 years, the Indians would receive full entitlement of the land. During these 25 years, the Indians would become legal citizens.

Bozeman Trail- Named after John M. Bozeman, this trail followed the Oregon Trail to southeastern Wyoming, and eventually to Bozeman and Virginia City. The American Army securely established the trail, but the Sioux didn't like the intrusion the trail put upon their land. In 1866, the Sioux demolished 82 soldiers that were taking the trail. These soldiers were under Captain William J. Fetterman. The trail was eventually abandoned because of the resistance the Sioux put on its travelers. The Union Pacific Railroad replaced it in 1868, and was more direct than the Bozeman Trail.

Calamity Jane- Born in Princeton, Missouri in 1852, her given name was Martha Jane