Intro psychology

Aaron Gates
5:40--7:05 Tu-Th

Negative reinforcers and punishmentboth tend to be aversive stimuli. However ,reinforcer increase the frequency of behavior. Punishment decrease or surpress the frequency of behavior. Negative reinforce increase the frequency of behavior when they are removed. Punishmentdecrease or surpress the frequency of behavior when they are applied.



Punishment in my opionon can help to dicipline children, but to much punishment can cause children to rebal agint the punisher. A child that is spanked for screaming in a store would not be a good example of punishment. In a case like that a negative reinforcer is more sutable for the situation. A child that throws a plate at another sibling is a situation were a punishment would be more suited.



Punishment needs to have an age limit. If a child has not learnd what is wrong and right by the time they are in highschool;they probley want to learn what is right and wrong anyway. If you try to dicapline a 17 year old they might laugh and do what you say not to just beacause you tell them not to do it.



Punishment can also affect the punisher. Sometime the punishment they hand out at the time may be felt as sutable to them right then,but later in the day they will feel remorse for what they did. It can also go the other way. The punisher may fell they did recivce enough punishment. Causing them to give out more and often leading to injury and in some cases abuse and mistreatment.



Negative reinforcers increase the probabilty that an operant will occur when they are removed. Peaple often learn to plan ahead so that things wont go wrong. In some case fear acts as a negative reinforcer,because removal of fear increases the probabilty that the behavior proceeding it will be repeated.


Examples of reinforcers ,are when a teacher says you can get one hundred bounes points for an extra assinment . Most student would do the assinment and other would shrug. When a boss offer one hundred dollars instead of ten you would more likely do it for one hundred . With rutean reinforcement thing would become habit forming and you would begin to expect the reinforcement in return for what is aske of you. If that reinforcement is taken away then so is the quality of what is asked of you.


Punishment compared to negative reinforcement has it up sides and it down side. Over all a negative reinforcer has more advantage to punishment. You cant hurt anyone phisically with it. It leaves no visible scars and or bruses. Down sides to it are that it does not do a god job sometimes of leaveing a permenant inpresion in some ones mind .