Industrial Revolution


The new industrial age was even more important than the first one. What made this new industrial age so
special compared to the first one, were invention like the light bulb. This new light bulb, for which Thomas Edison
was made so famous for lasted longer than any others invented before it. The new light bulb didnít produce a blinding
light and it was totally silent. But, the light bulb couldnít have been without the new usage of electric power. Electric
power not only produced more electric inventions, it also produced many more jobs. The usage of electric power was
also used in transportation, such as the steam engine, with new electric motors the steam engine didnít have to be as
large. There were only really two more inventions that really helped changed the lives of Americans. The telephone
was one of these inventions. The telephone was invented be Alexander Graham Bell, it didnít really catch on though,
but after going to Brazil with his new invention it caught on really fast after that. Because of the massive usage of the
phone people where needed to be telephone operators. This put women really in the work place for the first time, by
around 1900 there where about 77,000 women telephone operators. They were about 96% of the total work force for
telephone operators. The next invention was the typewriter which was invented in 1867 by a man named Christopher
Sholes. In 1870 women only made up about 5% of total office workers, but by 1900 they made up about 75% of the
work force. The only bad thing about these new workers were how only white women could work at these jobs. And
one of the best inventions, was the invention of steel. Steel was stronger than wood or iron and it also lasted longer
than either of those two. And because of these things it changed the direction of America for ever.

Now at this time railroads were expanding across the country. The railroads employed many people, infact in
1870 they employed about 163,000 and by 1900 the railroads were having about one million people for them.
Because of the confusion of train times a man by the name of C.F. Dowd suggested that there should be 24 time
zones. Each time zone would be one hour, like if you were in Chicago and it was 10:30 P.M. it would be 11:30 P.M.
in New York. Some of the good things that railroads did besides jobs, was how the railroads could send goods from
one place to another faster than ever before. But there were some problems with the railroads, such as how railroads
could just put their track where ever they wanted to put it and people werenít happy about this. And they had a
problem with charging people more for short hauls than for long hauls. So then people put pressure on the
government to stop these things from happening. And because of the people the railroads had been changed forever.

Because of the increase on industry, the business world got a boost also. Andrew Carnegie who was a self
mad millionaire decided that he could sell more goods if he could give them to the people at a lower cost. And
because of his thinking it made him even richer. And by 1901 he had made one of the biggest companies in the world,
he owned eleven companies with a total of 170 subsidiaries. There was a thing called a pool now, this was when
several companies decided to join together and act as if they were one large company. John Rockerfeller was the man
who owned an oil company trust called Standard Oil Trust. He decided that he wanted all of the oil business, and
what he did was sell his products cheaper than anyone else and buy out all the other oil companies. But soon enough
people began to feel like companies like Standard Oil had to much power, so in 1890 Congress passed the Sherman
Antitrust Act. But someone named Herbert Spencer thought differently, he used Darwinís natural selection theory as
his way of telling the government to stop messing with the businesses of America. Because he felt that there was no
way the government could stop them any way, so way not have the best ones survive. And then there was another
man who changed the businesses of America, his name was Horatio Alger. He