Identify Kulturkampf.
Kulturkampf was introduced by Bismarck, it was an attack on the Catholic Church. It was
also know as "struggle for civilization".

Identify Bismarck.
Bismarck was a chancellor who refused to be bound by a parliamentary majority.
Bismarck wanted economic and legal unification of the country. Bismarck led an attack
on the Catholic church called the Kulturkampf. Bismarck was always looking for a way to
increase taxes and raise more money for the government, to do this, the raised tariffs.
Bismarck was a person who tried to stop socialism. He greatly feared its growth in
Germany.

Identify William II.
William II was a new emperor in 1890 who was young, idealistic, and unstable. William
opposed Bismarck’s attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic party.
Due to his eagerness to run his own empire, William II fired Bismarck. But William was
no any more successful as Bismarck in getting the workers to renounce socialism.

Identify "dropping of the pilot".
"Dropping of the pilot" was the phrase used to describe the dismissal of Bismarck.
Because of this, German foreign policy changed profoundly and mostly for the worse, but
new laws were passed to aid workers and to legalize the socialist political activity.

Identify Dreyfus affair.
Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish captain in the French army who was falsely accused and
convicted of treason. After being sent to prison, in 1898 to 1899, the case split France
apart. One side was the army, who established evidence against Dreyfus. The other side
were the civil libertarians. Finally, Dreyfus was declared innocent, and this revived
republican feeling against the church. The government had no ties with the church,
anybody working for the church was no longer paid by the government. And the Catholic
schools received no funding.

Identify Adolphe Thiers.
Adolphe Thiers was the leader of the National Assembly. He hated the ideas of the Paris
Commune, who were trying to govern Paris. He ordered the French army into Paris and
brutally crushed the Commune. Because of this, 20,000 men died, and there was a type of
civil war going on in France, French verses French.




For what reasons did Bismarck oppose Socialism?
Bismarck opposed Socialism because he feared its revolutionary language and allegiance
to a movement transcending the nation-state.


How did the Dreyfus affair divide France? What was the outcome for Dreyfus? For
France?
The Dreyfus affair divided France into two groups, the group who said he was guilty, and
the group that said he was innocent. The first group was made up of the army,
anti-Semites, and the Catholic establishment. This group manufactured evidence against
Dreyfus. The other group was made of civil libertarians who fought for his innocence.
After Dreyfus’ family, along with Emile Zola, the case was reopened, and Dreyfus was
found innocent. Because of this, the republican government revived its feeling against the
Catholic Church. The government severed all ties it had with the church. Church workers
were no longer paid by the government, and Catholic schools no longer got funds from the
government