Hyperkinetic Children



Hyperkinetic is just another word for Hyperactive. Hyperactivity describes children who show numerous amounts of inappropriate behaviors in situations that require sustained attention and orderly responding to fairly structured tasks. Humans who are hyperactive tend to be easily distracted, impulsive, inattentive, and easily excited or upset. Hyperactivity in children is manifested by gross motor activity, such as excessive running or climbing. The child is often described as being on the go or "running like a motor", and having difficulty sitting still. Older children and adolescents may be extremely restless or fidgety. They may also demonstrate aggressive and very negative behavior. Other features include obstinacy, stubbornness, bossiness, bullying, increased mood lability, low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts, low self-esteem, and lack of response to discipline. Very rarely would a child be considered hyperactive in every situation, just because restraint and sustained attentiveness are not necessary for acceptable performance in many low-structure situations. Many parents rate the onset of abnormal activity in their child when it is and infant or toddler. Abnormal sleep patterns are frequently mentioned, the child objects to taking naps, he also seems to need less sleep, and becomes very stubborn at bedtime. Then, when the child is seemingly exhausted, hyperactive behavior may increase. Family history studies show that hyperactivity, which is more common in boys than in girls, may be a hereditary trait, as are some other traits (reading disabilities or enuresis-bed wetting). Certain predisposing factors affect the mother, and therefore the child, at the time of conception or gestation or during delivery. Included are radiation, infection, hemorrhage, jaundice, toxemia, trauma, medications, alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine. The course of the syndrome typically spans the 6-year to 12-year age range. In many classrooms, children who display inappropriate overactivity (restlessness, moving around without permission) , attention deficits (distractible by task-irrelevant events, inability to sustain attention to the task) , and impulsivity (making decisions and responses hastily and inaccurately, interrupting and interfering with classmates and the teachers) are likely to be identified as hyperactive. The diagnosis of hyperactivity is usually suggested when parents and teachers complains that a child is excessively active, behaves poorly, or has learning difficulties. However, there is no specific definition or precise test to confirm that a child is hyperactive. This syndrome is most frequently recognized when the child cannot behave appropriately in the classroom. There are three characteristic courses. In the first, all of the symptoms persist into adolescence or adult life. In the second, the disorder is self-limited and all of the symptoms disappear completely at puberty. In the third, the hyperactivity disappears, but the attentional difficulties and impulsivity persist into adolescence or adult life. The relative frequency of the courses is unknown. The individual, accordingly, does not grow out of the disorder. As the child passes through puberty, aggression and restlessness may decrease, but most symptoms persist and may lead the adolescent to develop a low self-esteem and a tendency to withdraw. The adolescent may also manifest anti-social tendencies, for instance, lieing, stealing, and violence, which frequently lead to delinquency. Similarly, symptoms persist into adult life and account for social maladjustment (behavior that violates laws or unwritten standards of the school or community, yet conforms to the standards of some social subgroup). Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is presently the most common condition diagnosed in hyperactive children. This specific syndrome focuses on the child\'s inability to pay attention. This syndrome occurs early in life (in infancy or by the age of 2 or 3 years ) is more common in boys and may occur as many as 3 percent of prepubertal children. A small proportion of hyperactive children have a definite history of injury to, or disease of, the brain that preceded a change to abnormal behavior. These children show relatively minor disabilities of coordination, reflexes, perception, problem solving, and other behaviors often referred to as "softsigns" of neurological disorder (brain-injured). It has not been established, however, that brain damage or malfunction is a factor in most cases of hyperactivity. Studies of many children who had difficulties at birth show no connection between such difficulties and later hyperactivity. In these other wise, normal children, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility are variable. The syndrome has been described for many years, and these children were