Greek Review assignment

I. Effects of geography upon existence.
How did they make a living?

1. rough terrain- mountain ranges separating deep valleys.
2. not enough farmland to feed people- forced to the sea to find food.
3. surrounded by seas on 3 sides, many harbors.
4. farmers raised grains, figs, olives, and grapes.
5. not enough basic food supplies led farmers to grow grapes and olives, the wine and oil could be sold
6. business in ancient Greece centered around farming.

II. Types of government / sparta’s government

1. sparten government.
2. democratic government.
3. aristocratic government.
4. two kings headed the spartan government.
5. a citizen is a 30+ male land owner.
6. 30 male citizens over 60 years old made up the senate.

IIV. Government of Athens

1. in Athens the worlds first democracy developed.
2. draco organized laws, making a writen code.
3. Solon made Draco’s laws less harsh.
4. citizenship was limited to males born and living in a city state.
5. Cleisthenes permitted some immigrants and former slaves to become citizens.
6. the right to vote and take part in government was limited to a small group of privileged citizens.

IV. Accomplishments of Philip Macedonia and Alexander the great.

1. in 338b.c. Philips armies overran Greece.
2. Philip II was murdered in 336b.c. by an assassin.
3. in 334b.c. Alexander led 35,000 soldiers into Persia.
4. by 331b.c. Alexander controlled the whole Persian empire.
5. Alexander died in Babylon in 323b.c.
6. eastern and western cultures mixed to produce a new culture called Hellenistic.

V. Greek religion

1. Greek gods represented forces of nature
2. Greeks honored their gods in elaborate and varied rituals
3. in early days human sacrifices to the gods were common
4. Greeks later substituted animals or food in sacrifice
5. Greeks mixed superstition with their religion
6. Zeus, Poseidon, Phoebes, hermes, ares, and hepheastus were some of the Greek gods.

VI. Role of Greek women / social classes

1. Greeks expected women to be housekeepers, maintaining the house.
2. women could not buy, sell, borrow money or sue in a court of law.
3. in 450b.c. a woman named Aspasia opend a school for women.
4. society in Greek city states was divided into classes.
5. Citizens were at the top of the ladder, then came metics, and slaves.
6. 35% of Athens population were slaves captured in war with other city states.

VII. Greek art, artists, literature

1. Greek plays were show in open air theaters
2. the parthenon is one of the most beautiful Greek buildings.
3. Some Greek architecture styles are still used today.
4. Some best known artists are Phidias and Praxitelses
5. the Greeks invented drama.
6. revenge, death, politics, and religion were some of the things shown in Greek drama.

VIII. Greek philosophers, advances in science

1. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, were some of the great Greek philosophers.
2. Socrates believed that there was nothing else as useful as knowledge.
3. Plato was Socrates’ student and Aristotle was Plato’s student.
4. Pythagoras help develop the ideas behind the study of geometry.
5. Democritus came up with the idea that all matter is made up of small moving atoms.
6. in 460b.c. medicine took its first steps to becoming a science.

IX. Hellenistic culture advanced art and science.

1. the city of Alexandria became the center of Hellenistic learning.
2. scientists of the Hellenistic age developed practical and useful knowledge.
3. Archimedes helped develop the steam engine.
4. also the knowledge of lever and pulley made it easier to move large objects.
5. Eratosthenes estimated the size of the earth’s circumference, within 195 miles.
6. Hellenistic artist also created dazzling works.