political parties-group actively involved in the political process: seeks to elect candidates to public office in order to control government policies. It is typically made up of those who want to preserve a current system or power structure.

interest groups-groups formed to promote the interests of its members

trade associations-group representing similar kinds of business

political action committees-group that collects contributions from members and gives this money to favored candidates or political parties

closed primary-primary election which only party members may vote

open primary-primary in which any citizen may vote in the primary of any party

direct lobbying-relies on personal contact with policymakers.

grassroots lobbying-involves an interest groupís rank-and file- members and may also include people outside the organization who sympathize with its goals. Grass roots tactics, such as letter-writing campaigns and protests, are often used in conjunction with direct lobbying.

primary elections-election in which the party members choose the partyís candidates for the next election.