I. Introduction
II. Early Life (1160’s-1190’s)
A. True name
B. Home-Mongolia
C. Tribe
D. Life span
III. Tribal Conquests (1190’s-1206)
A. Tatars
B. Kereyit
C. Merkit
D. Naiman
IV. Early Conquest (1209)
A. Travel
B. Strategy
C. Xi Xia surrenders
V. Conquest of Jin Empire (1211-1214)
A. Army statistics
B. Strategy
C. Enemy surrenders
D. Jin empire moves south
VI. Conquest of Kara-Khitai (1218)
A. Kuchlug
B. Mongols welcomed
C. Kuchlug’s execution
VII. Conquest of Khwarizm Empire (1219-1220)
A. Traders executed as spies
B. Ambassador executed by Shah Muhammad
C. Xi Xia refuses troops
D. Army strengths
E. Strategy
F. Inalchug killed
VIII. Conquest of Silk Road Cities (1220-1223)
A. Samarkand
B. Urgench
C. Merv
D. Balkh
E. Nishapur
F. Herat
IX. Conquests of Jebe and Subedei (1223-1226)
A. Wiped out two Georgian armies
B. Defeated Turkish tribes
C. Routed 80,000 Russians
D. Circled the Caspian Sea
X. Conquest of Xi Xia (1226-1227)
A. Xi Xia tries to break away
B. Genghis flooded city
C. Genghis orders Xi Xia exterminated
XI. Mongolian Armor
A. Leather armor
B. Small shield
C. Robe and tunic
XII. Mongolian Weapons
A. Composite bow
B. Three quivers of arrows
C. Lance
D. Saber
E. Dagger
XIII. Genghis Dies (1227)
A. Different possible ways
B. Burial site and rituals
C. Site hidden
D. Successor is Ogodei
XIV. Conclusion

How would you like to live in Asia during the early 13th century? Well, you probably would not
like it, and you may not live for very long anyway because your city probably would have been conquered
by one of the greatest generals in history, Genghis Khan, and if you were lucky, your city would only be
defeated, not exterminated, like the city of Herat, where only 9 people survived after the great Khan went
through. Many more cities were demolished because of the man who conquered more than half the known
world in the 13th century, whose empire was to exceeded in size only by Great Britain.
Genghis Khan was born sometime around 1164, although nobody knows for sure the exact year he
was born in. Genghis Khan’s true name is not ‘Genghis Khan’, it is Temujin. Temujin was a member of
the Yakka Mongol tribe, and his father was the ‘khan’ or chief of the tribe. In the 12th century, when
Temujin lived, there were about 30 tribes and about 2 million people in Mongolia. Half of them spoke
Turkish. (National Geographic, pg. 22) (“Genghis Khan” 20-22)
Genghis, then Temujin, conquered many other tribes when he was about 30 years old. His
conquests include conquests over the Tatars, the Merkit, the Naimen and many other tribes that he either
allied with or conquered. One of his allies was with the Kereyit tribe. At a kuriltai, or great assembly,
Temujin was given the title of Genghis Khan, which means “strong ruler.” (National Geographic, pg. 22-
In 1209, Genghis decided to travel south, over 300 miles of Gobi Desert, to the Kingdom of Xi
Xia. When Genghis came up against the enemy’s army in a mountain pass, he used a favorite trick of the
Mongols, he and his whole army faked a retreat, and when the enemy troops came after them, they turned
around suddenly and defeated the opposing army, and capturing an enemy commander. The emperor of Xi
Xia surrendered in 1210. (National Geographic, pg. 25)
Genghis now set his heart on conquering the Jin empire which lays east of Xi Xia. The Jin had
much more gold and riches than the tribes or Xi Xia. The Mongol army marched on the Jin capital,
Zhongdu, in 1214 after ravaging the countryside and surrounding towns for the past three years. The army,
which included almost 70000 troops, had gathered from the conquered towns Chinese bombardiers and
mangonels which could throw several-hundred pound stones at the walls. The Jin emperor surrendered
when Genghis finally besieged Zhongdu in 1214, giving Genghis and his troops many riches and treasures.
Then, in 1215, the Khan stormed back to Zhongdu, thinking the emperor was getting ready to attack, and
massacred the populous. (National Geographic, pg. 26-28)
In 1218, at the end of a rare time of peace for the Mongols, Genghis Khan discovered that a
Naimen prince, by the name of Kuchlug, had seized power in Kara-Khitai and was building an army to
oppose that of Genghis Khan. The Khan would have no rebellions go unpunished, so he sent his top
general, Jebe, to wipe out the princes army. When Jebe arrived at the gates of Kashgar, the city where
Kuchlug was, there was no fighting. The people of Kashgar actually welcomed Jebe and his army, and led
them to where Kuchlug