Final Paper

The expansion of Europe during the 19th century is said to be difficult to analyze

and explain conevingly because it was unplanned and chaotic. Modern Europe was constructed in the nineteenth century. Moreover, most of the social, economic, and political forces unleashed from 1815 to 1914 are the same ones that shape our own time. Urbanization, mass entertainment, industrial capitalism, modern liberalism, socialism, and nationalism all developed in the 19th century.

Following the Final Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815 and the Restoration of the Bourbon Dynasty to the throne of France, Europe was trying to restore stability in the relationships between the nations of Europe, while at the same time making sure that characteristics of the Revolution would never again appear in the continent. One major key factor in the nineteenth century was that Europeís population was growing much faster than expected. Meanwhile, the fall in the death rate was at its low, this was a result in better hygiene and better nutrition. So as far as nutrition was concerned, improved communications from the middle of the century were a powerful force. Which lead to a more variety of diets and most important of all, for more reliable supplies of all the basic foods. With the generation growing rapidly the population was growing, they were building physically stronger and more educated people.

In the 19th century many countries were industrializing their economies and trying to expand their place in world markets. The failure of Metternich\'s \'balance of power\' system created at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was partly based on European nations quest for economic advantage. For a generation after 1815 Great Britain and Belgium were the only European states which could claim to be industrialized in a modern sense of the theorem to any significant extent. Even in the 1780ís Britain,

by comparison, had possessed important economic advantages. Great Britain was the first country in Europe to begin the process of Industrialization, thus Britain had a lead over the rest of the European nations. It is said that the Industrial Revolution began when new inventions began to develop factories and thus bring an end to the domestic system of production. The second half of the 18th century served as a catalyst for an age-old evolutionary process rather than a commencement of inventions. By the middle of the 19th century, industrialization began to reshape the landscape of Europe and altered the lifestyle of Europeans.

By the 1850ís Europe had undergone massive economic expansion. This economic change, known as the Second Industrial Revolution, many believe was more important than the first one. They also named it the "Age of Steel." Because of its strength and durability, steel became the metal choice for buildings and ships. Electrical power was invented during this period. In 1881 the first electric power station was build in Great Britain. Man-made Fertilizers, the telephone, and the internal combustion engine was also invented during this time. Dynamite was invented by the Swedish Alfred Nobel, the guy from the Nobel Price. With the expansions of Europe. the world was bound together physically, by railways and telegraphs built by Europeans, cables laid down by Europeans, by steamships designed and commanded by Europeans. The capital which made possible so much economic development in the rest of the world came largely from Europe banks, stock exchanges, and modern industry were European inventions.The growth of nationalism was an important factor in the 19th century.

The British and French support for the destructive nationalism that created Greece in 1892 and Belgium in 1839 reveal their interest in reducing the economic power of rival empires such as the Ottoman Empire. The constant Russian push for control of the Black Sea and the shipping lanes through the Dardanelles and the refusal of other European countries to support Russian ambitions also demonstrates the economic motivation in nationalism and imperialism. The constructive nationalism of Italy and Germany shows the consolidation of economic resources in a new nation-state. Family structures also changed enormously. Families no longer worked together, with women and children often working under conditions more deplorable than men. Britain\'s Saddler committee exposed that children were being beaten in the factories, thus the House of Commons passed a bill saying that children younger than nine could not work