Endocrinal Diseases are also known as hormonal diseases. They involve either excessive or insufficient production of hormones through the endocrine system. These diseases can be both chronic and debilitating. Some of the most common diseases of the endocrine system are Addison’s disease, gigantism, simple goiter, Grave’s disease, diabetes mellitus and Cushing’s syndrome.
Addison’s disease is a chronic disorder caused by lack of secretions of the adrenal glands. In most cases, the origin of the disease is unknown, however it can occur after a severe infection such as tuberculosis. Addison’s disease is not contagious, does not affect a typical age group, and the disease cannot be prevented. Due to a lack of hormone secretion, symptoms such as a deep voice, increased masculinity, loss of body fluid, low blood pressure and gradual darkening of the skin may occur. Once this disease was fatal but now it is treated with cortisone or hydrocortisone and added salt in the diet.
Gigantism or giantism can be a heredity disorder or can be caused by over activity of the interior pituitary gland, which influences the hormones needed for growth. Gigantism is not contagious and cannot be prevented. It is usually most common among adolescents. The main symptom of gigantism is an overactive symmetrical growth, in the arms and legs, followed by growth in height of the entire body. Gigantism is treated by drugs that reduce the level of growth producing hormones.
The simple goiter is a disease of the thyroid gland caused by a deficiency of iodine in the diet. A goiter is caused by the enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck. It is not a contagious disease and can be prevented by adding iodine to water supplies and table salt. Goiters can appear in people of all ages. The main symptom is a swelling on the neck. Treatments include iodine that is administered to children who have the disease, or a thyroidectomy, which is necessary if the gland becomes greatly enlarged.
Grave’s disease is also known as a toxic goiter. It was named for the Irish Physician Robert James Graves. A toxic goiter is caused by excessive secretions of the thyroid, known as thyroxine. The toxic goiter is not contagious and can not be prevented. It is known to usually affect adolescents. Symptoms of a toxic goiter include rapid heartbeat, tremor, increased sweating, increased appetite, weight loss, weakness and fatigue. Some patients can experience eye problems because of toxic goiters. This disease can sometimes be treated by use of the drugs thiouracil and trapazol.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases of the endocrinal system. It has two divisions, which are called Type I and Type II. Type I occurs if the person has a lack of insulin, while Type II occurs if the person has normal or above normal levels of insulin. Diabetes is caused by excess sugar, in the blood. The disease is not contagious and with early detection, can be prevented. Type I usually appears in children, while Type II seems to occur in people forty years of age or older. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are skin infections, fatigue, blurred visions, frequent bladder infections, weight loss and increased volume of urination. Type I can be treated with daily injections of glucose. Type II can be treated with a well balanced diet and low sugar intake,
Cushing’s syndrome is a chronic disease caused by excess levels of glycocortcoids in the blood stream. Cushing’s syndrome is not contagious, nor can it be prevented. This disease does not affect any certain age group. Symptoms include a red moon shaped face, obesity, skin that is subject to sun burn, improper healing of wounds, weak muscles, osteoporosis, sugar intolerance, high blood pressure, acne, and the cessation of a women’s menstrual cycle. Cushing’s disease may be treated with drugs that affect the level of glycocortcoids, removal of the pituitary gland or the adrenal cortex, as well as with radiotherapy.

Although all systems of the body work together, the endocrine system depends mostly upon the circulatory system. The endocrine system secretes hormones, which must be carried by the blood to areas that they serve. The endocrine system utilizes the digestive system by producing different hormones that assist in the digestive process. Hormones are produced in the thyroid gland, and they in turn, govern the