EMANUEL KAKAOUNAKIS
CHAPTER 7
COGNITION & LANGUAGE

HUBBLE TELESCOPE
-PROBLEM SOLVING
-COGNITION PSYCHOLOGY
-COGNITION
-THINKING & REASONING
-LANGUAGE

THINKING
-ONLY HUMANS CAN CONTEMPLATE, ANALYZE, RECOLLECT OR PLAN
-THINKING= THE MANIPULATION OF MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF INFO
-REPRESENTATION= WORD, VISUAL IMAGE, SOUND OR OTHER DATA
-REPRESENTATIONS TRANSFORM INTO A DIFFERENT FORM TO ALLOW PROBLEM SOLVING
-WE DO NOT REALLY KNOW HOW THIS HAPPENS
-WE DO UNDERSTAND FUNDEMENTAL ELEMENTS

MENTAL IMAGES
-NOT JUST VISUAL BUT AUDITORY AS WELL AS OTHER SENSES
-HAVE MANY OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE ACTUAL OBJECT OR EVENT
-WE ARE ABLE TO MANIPULATE THE VISUAL IMAGE OF AN OBJECT
-CAN BE USED TO IMPROVE VARIOUS SKILLS
-BASKET BALL TRAINING
-REASERCH INDICATES THAT IT WORKS
-PIANO LESSONS, THREE GROUPS, SIMILAR BRAIN SCANS

CONCEPTS
-ORGANIZE PHENOMENA INTO SIMPLE CATEGORIES
-CLASSIFY NEW EXPIERIENCE ACCORDING TO PAST EXPIERIENCE
-CAR, MAKE AND MODEL
-INFLUENCE OUR BEHAVIOR, WHAT IS APPROPRIATE
-EARLY REASERCH, CLEARLY DEFINED SET OF FEATURES FOR EACH CATEGORY, WITHOUT FEATURES OBJECT DID NOT FIT
-MORE RELEVENT TO OUR LIVES ARE MORE AMBITIOUS, DIFFICULT TO DEFINE
-THINK OF AMBIGUOUS CONCEPTS WE THINK OF AN EXAMPLE
-EXAMPLE= PROTOTYPES, EXAMPLES OF CONCEPTS THAT MOST PEOPLE WILL AGREE
-ALLOWS US TO THINK ABOUT THE WORLD


JUDGEMENTS
-WASH HANDS 20X PER DAY
-DOCTOR OR MENTAL PATIENT
-FRAME WORK WE EXPIERIENCE THE BEHAVIOR
-CONCEPTS ALLOW US TO DRAW APPROPRIATE CONCLUSIONS

REASONING
-PROCESS BY WHICH INFORMATION IS USED TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS AND MAKE DECISIONS DEDUCTIVE
-DRAW INFERENCES FROM A SET OF ASSUMPTIONS THAT ARE TRUE
-SYLOGISM
-PREMISE CAN BE INNACURATE
-EVEN IF THE LOGIC IS CORRECT THE PREMISE CAN BE WRONG
-EVEN IF LOGIC IS NOT SOUND PEOPLE WILL BELIVE IT
-CULTURE PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE

INDUCTIVE
-USING A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE WE MAKE GENERAL RULES
-SHERLOCK HOLMES, SPECIFIC CLUES, INFER THE CRIMINAL
-WE ALL USE INDUCTIVE REASONING

MENTAL SHORT CUTS
-ALOGRITHM, RULE IF FOLLOWED WILL GUARANTEE A SOLUTION, WE MAY NOT UNDERSTAND WHY, MATH FORMULAS
-HEURISTIC, A RULE OF THUMB, MAY BRING ABOUT A SOLUTION BUT NO GUARENTEE

HEURISTIC
-CAN BACKFIRE
-REPRESENTATATIVE OF HEURISTIC, JUDGE PEOPLE ACCORDING TO A CATEGORY, LEAD TO PREJUDICE
-MURDER VS DISEASE\ PLANE VS AUTO

PROBLEM SOLVING
-TOWER OF HANOI PUZZLE
-HOW DO WE SOLE LIFES SIMPLE DAY TO DAY PROBLEMS
-THREE MAJOR STEPS
-PREPARATION
-PRODUCTION OF SOLUTIONS
-EVALUATIONS OF EACH SOLUTION

PREPARATION
-UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM, ANY RESTRICTIONS, WELL DEFINED, MATH OR ILL DEFINED PROBLEMS, PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST
-DEFINED, WELL DEFINE DINFORMATION, JUDGEMENT STRAIGHT FORWARD
TYPES OF PROBLEMS
-ARRANGEMENT, GROUP OF ELEMENTS MUST BE ARRANGED TO SATISFY CRITERIA, JIG SAW PUZZLE
-INDUCING STRUCTURE, IDENTIFY THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ELEMENTS, CONSTRUCT A NEW RELATIONSHIP
-TRANSFORMATION, CHANGE AN INITIAL STATE USING A SERIES OF METHODS
-ANY PROBLEM INITIAL STAGE OF UNDERSTANDING IS CRITICAL TO PROBLEM SOLVING
-FILTER OUT UNIMPORTANT INFORMATION TO SIMPLIFY TASKS
-CRITICAL HOW WE REPRESENT THE PROBLEM TO OUSELEVES AND THEN ORGANIZE THE INFORMATION
-PRODUCTION, RETRIEVE SOLUTION FROM LONG TERM MEMORY
-TRIAL & ERROR, MOST PRIMITIVE METHOD, COULD SPEND A LIFE TIME & NOT FIND SOLUTION
-MEANS AND ANALYSIS, HEURISTIC ONLY WORK IF THERE IS A DIRECT SOLUTION
-SUBGOALS, HEURISTIC, DIVIDE PROBLEM INTO STEPS, TOWER OF HANOI
-NOT ALL PROBLEMS CAN BE DIVIDED OR TOO COMPLICATED
-INSIGHT, SUDDEN COMPREHENSION NOT A STEP BY STE PROCESS
-WOLFGANG KOHLER, 1927, CHIMPS
-PRIOR EXPERIENCE TRIAL & ERROR ARE PREREQUISITES FOR INSIGHT

JUDGEMENTS
-FINAL STEP OF THE PROCESS
-CLEAR SOLUTION, MATH PROBLEM
-IF NOT CONCRETE, MAKE A JUDGEMENT
-WE ARE NOT ALWAYS THE BEST JUDGE OF OUR WORK, INFLUENCED BY OUR PAST EXPERIENCE
-CREATE OBSTACLES, BIASES

IMPEDIMENTS TO PROBLEM SOLVING
-DIFFICULT PROBLEM BECAUSE OF PRESENTATION
-THE PRESENTATION OF THE PROBLEM CAN EFFECT THE EASE OF SOLUTION
-WE ALL THINK ALONG A LOGICAL SEQUENCE TO SOLVE A PROBLEM

FUNCTIONAL FLEXEDNESS
-CANDLE PROBLEM, THOUGHT OF THE BOX AS ONLY AS A CONTAINER
-PEN, LADIES HOSIERY
-MENTAL SET, DIFFICULTY TH #6, IF PRESENTED FIRST YOU WOULD HAVE KNOW PROBLEM
-ID PROBLEM 9 DOTS

INACCURATE EVALUATION OF SOLUTIONS
-THREE MILE ISLAND, FACULTY MONITOR, EVEN WHEN SECOND MONIOR READS MELT DOWN
-CONFORMATION BIAS, EFFORT TO RETHINK A PROBLEM, HUMANS ARE CRAZY

CREATIVITY
-WE CAN GIVE EXAMPLES BUT NOT STUDY ITS PARTS, CAN STUDY SOME FACTORS
-DIVERGENT THINKING, GENERATE UNUSUAL BUT APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONS
-CONVERGENT THINKING
-WILLINGNESS TO TAKE RISKS, HIGH PAY OFF OR HIGH EMBARASSMENT
-CONGITIVE COMPLEXITY, PREFERENCE FOR INTRICATE & ELABURATE, COMPLEX THINKING PATTERNS

LANGUAGE
-SYSTEMATIC MEANINGFUL ARRANGEMENT OF SYMBOLS
-LEWIS CARROLL NONSENSE POEM
-CONGNITIVE ABILITY NECESSARY FOR COMMUNICATION
-LINK BETWEEN HOW WE THINK, UNDERSTAND OUR WORLD AND OUR LANGUAGE

ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE
-GRAMMAR, SYSTEM OF RULES THAT GOVERN OUR EXPRESSION
-PHONOLOGY, SOUNDS TO WORDS
-SYNTAX, HOW WORDS AND PHRASES ARE CONSTRUCTED
-SEMANTICS, MEANING OF WORDS

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
-BABY’S BABBLE, 3 MONTHS TO A YEAR
-VOCALIZE ALL POSSIBLE SOUNDS IN ALL LANGUAGE
-DEAF CHILDREN BABBLE
-OTHER LANGUAGE SOUNDS DISSAPEAR BY AGE ONE
-AFTER ONE YEAR, PUT WORDS TOGETHER TO COMMUNICATE
-2 YEAR OLD HAS 250 WORD VOCABULARY
-2 1\2 YEAR OLD, SEVERAL HUNDRED
-5 YEAR OLD HAS LEARNED BASIC RULES OF GRAMMAR

LEARNING- THEORY APPROACH
-CONDITIONING & RIENFORCEMENT
-BABBLING, ADULTS RIENFORCE CERTAIN SOUNDS
-SHAPES THE CHILDS SPEECH

NOAM CHOMSKY
-INATE MECHANISM, BORN WITH A LINGUISTIC ABILITY THAT