Booker Drennan
Global Studies
Period 5

Arab Republic of Egypt, or unofficially Egypt, is one of the most interesting countries in the world. Its historical background is incredible considering itís terrain hardly varies at all. There seems to have always been an interest in Egypt because of its huge temples, called pyramids. Also it was known to be one of the most advanced cultures since 3200 BC and even today we can still not imagine what great force it took to make such pyramids. They ancient Egyptians were known to be very intelligent and their rule was much like a monarchy where the royal family passed down rule to other members of the family. Hieroglyphics have always been an interesting topic because much they show us much of what these people did during their lives. Everything about Egypt seems to carry a mystery or be intriguing.

The geography of Egypt is not the most interesting part about it and probably is the only thing that stays almost constant. On the West side of Egypt it borders Libya, the East borders Israel and the Red Sea, the North by the Mediterranean Sea and the South by Sudan. Egypt is roughly 1500 miles of coastline and about two thirds of that is along the Red Sea. The total area of Egypt is 386,662 square feet. Less than ten percent of that is not even been cultivated which makes for a vast dry country. About ninety percent of Egypt is made up of desert areas including the Libyan Desert to the West and the Arabian Desert to the East. Within the Libyan Desert, which is part of the Sahara, is a large dry area which has many large depressions in it. One of which is the Qattara Depression, which is 7,000 square miles and goes down to a depth of 436 feet below sea level. Also within the Qattara Depression are several large oases. The Arabian Desert on the other hand is mainly located on a plateau, which rises East from the Nile Valley to about 2,000 feet above sea level. The highest elevation in Egypt is not this plateau but instead Mt. Catherine which lies on the sandy Sinai Peninsula.

Another important part to the geography of Egypt is the ever famous Nile River. The Nile River comes into Egypt through Sudan and flows north for 900 miles through Egypt to where it empties out in the Mediterranean Sea. The whole trip made by the river goes through a very narrow valley with cliffs on the sides. This Nile Valley is rarely even 2 miles wide and the only good land is mainly on the West side of it. But strangely from Idfu to Cairo this valley extends to about fourteen miles wide and the land is much more useable for it has a greater amount of natural resources. There are a variety of peninsulas in this area, which are eroding because of the salts brought down by the Nile River. Because there are many indentations along the shoreline near the eroding peninsulas there are many suitable places for harbors, which is something that gives Egypt an advantage as a country.

The most interesting thing about Egypt is the history from which it comes from. No other nation in the world is so famous for what happened to it in the early stages of government and rule then Egypt. About 3200 BC the first united kingdom of Egypt was established. This was also about the same time in which the very first hieroglyphics were found to be from. During the time period called the 0 Dynasty there were about thirteen rulers and then during the 1st and 2nd Dynasty there were about seventeen more rulers. During these three Dynastyís there were also structures similar to the pyramids constructed but of far less magnitude. The 3rd through the 6th Dynastyís are referred to as the time of the Old Kingdom. During this time period the rulers where the same as modern day monarchs holding absolute power over everyone else. These rulers or pharaohs were not only considered all powerful but in many cases considered gods. Religion played a very important role in this time period. During this time period the great pyramids of Egypt were created as large