Comparative Politics



Comparative Politics, typically defined as the study of the internal politics of nations other than our own, is

a diverse and complex field. There is no one central tendency or approach which dominates this area of

inquiry within political science: various theories, concepts, issues and methodologies are evident in the

field. While it is recognized that no simple classification can be made of the literature, we are encouraged

to be aware of contrasting approaches, and to engage in constructively critical ,thinking about the field.

For the purposes of study, there should first be general familiarity with the history and evolution of the

field. This would comprise knowledge of the work and ideas of some of the major thinkers who have

shaped comparative politics.

Moving from this point I am going to bring about a structural comparison between two governmental

systems that are India and Macau .Both countries have their own unique types of governmental structures ,

judiciary and parliaments which really caught my deep interest to know more about these 2 countries , and

to apply comparative method between the two governments.with special references to the geographical ,

structural , political legislative and judicial differences .

GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE

INDIA

The home of Taj Mahal , one of the seven modern wonders of the world, India is the

second most populous country in the world and the 7th largest areawise. India is home to lots of religions

and is secular by nature. Here is some religious information . The banks of the Ganges river, considered as

one of the holy rivers by the Hindus, is lined by religious towns like Hardwar, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh .

The Bhagwad Gita is one of the most widely read Hindu religious texts. When anyone thinks of India, it is

hard to escape thinking about the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi , who has inspired many people

like Martin Luther King Jr. by his non-violent stance in attaining independence for India. Here is another

image of one of the greatest statesmen . India attained independence on August 15, 1947 from the British (a

day after Pakistan's split from the Indian Union). The Indian flag is a tricoloured one (saffron, white and

green) with an ashoka chakra (24 spokes representing the 24 hours of the day). This flag is a curled one

with a writing of "Mera Bharat M!

ahan" .

MACAU

Compared to India Macau is only a small province located in south-east China, on the western edge of the

delta formed by the Pearl River Delta (Zhu Jiang) and the West River (Xi Jiang), bordering the Chinese

province of Guangdong. It is 70 kms (38 miles) from Hong Kong and 145 kms from Canton. Local time is

eight hours ahead of Greenwich mean time. Macau covers a total area of 20.96 square kilometres which

includes the Macau peninsula and the islands of Taipa and Coloane. Macau is connected to mainland China

by a narrow isthmus. Two bridges, the 'Ponte Nobre de Carvalho' (2,600 metres long) and the 'Ponte da

Amizade' (4,380 metres), inaugurated respectively in 1974 and 1994, connect the island of Taipa to the

peninsula. The island of Coloane is reached from Taipa by way of a two kilometre-long isthmus, the right

side of which is now an extensive land embankment. The total area of the enclave has been progressively

enlarged through land reclamation along all waterfronts. For!

example, in 1840, the Macau peninsula was, at 2.78 square kilometres, 2.5 times smaller than it is today. In

physical terms, it is 63 times smaller than Hong Kong, 37 times smaller than Singapore and 5,000 times

smaller than Portugal. At the end of 1995, Macau's resident population totalled 425,000, many times

smaller than that of the India's .

POLITICAL SYSTEM

INDIA

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of

Government. The Indian Polity is governed in terms of the Constitution, which was adopted by the

Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 November 1950. The President is

the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. Real executive power vests in a Council of Ministers

with the Prime Minister as head. Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of

Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to