Community Building with Suicidal Behavior
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Community Building with Suicidal Behavior
Organizational Behaviour and Design
Community Building with Suicidal Behaviour
Human beings have psychological, ethical, and spiritual needs that transcend the normal liberal agenda. Liberals have tended to focus exclusively on economic entitlements and political rights. But most people need something more: We need to be part of loving families and ethically and spiritually grounded communities that provide a meaning for our lives that transcends the individualism and me-firstism of the competitive society.
People constantly experience emotions, yet in organizational theory, as in organizational life, the exploration of emotions has been largely deemphasized, marginalized, or ignored. Impersonal criteria for making decisions and restraints on emotional expression at work have long been the hallmarks of bureaucracy (e.g., Weber, 1946, 1981). Recent work has broken this emotional taboo, exploring how certain organizations require the expression of particular emotions at work to maximize organizational productivity, an aspect of job performance that has been labeled emotional labor (Hochschild, 1983).
CONTROL IN THREE IDEAL TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS
The process of organizing requires the coordination of employees' behavior. Because coordination may be imperfect:
(1) Direct and fully obtrusive:
such as giving orders, surveillance, and rules.
(2) Bureaucratic and somewhat less obtrusive: such as division of labor and hierarchy; and
(3) Fully unobtrusive control of the cognitive premises underlying action: in which the employee voluntarily restricts the range of behaviors considered appropriate.
Focus on Emotions
Traditional bureaucratic, normative, and feminist organizations differ regarding their orientations toward emotional issues. Traditional bureaucratic organizations echo Weber in emphasizing control by impartial and impersonal rules that eschew the personal favoritism that can come with individuating solutions to problems (e.g., Hellriegel and Slocum, 1979). Traditional bureaucracies also attempt to keep the public domain of work and the private domain of personal and family life separate, so that if an employee experiences difficulties balancing work and family demands, responsibility for the problem and the solution lies with the individual employee, not the employing firm.
Robert Weisberg, 2003) offered a modification of the feminist position on these emotional issues. They introduced bounded emotionality as a limited and pragmatic approach to the problem of emotional control in organizations, for a different formulation of bounded emotionality. as "feelings, sensations, and affective responses to organizational situations," although the acknowledged that such work feelings stem from and affect emotions arising from one's personal history and home life.
Bounded emotionality encourages the expression of a wider range of emotions than is usually condoned in traditional and normative organizations, while stressing the importance of maintaining interpersonally sensitive, variable boundaries between what is felt and what is expressed. Bounded emotionality has six defining characteristics: inter-subjective limitations, emergent (rather than organizationally ascribed) feelings, tolerance of ambiguity, heterarchy of goals and values, integrated self-identity, and community building.
Empowering lesbian and gay communities (Historical Background):
Empowerment has emerged as a conceptual paradigm to guide theory, old and current research, and practice in community psychology (Rappaport, 1981; Swift & Levin, 1987). Community psychologists have been in the forefront in articulating and evaluating collaborative processes designed to help historically disenfranchised groups access health, mental health, and other resources. The intent of these interventions is to create a psychological sense of community that can break the cycle of oppression. Lesbians and gay men are a substantial population which has been historically marginalized by law, social policies, and social custom. However, the concerns of lesbians and gay men have remained largely invisible in community psychology. For instance, a review of community psychology journals between 1965 and 1985 revealed four papers on lesbian and gay topics. These studies found that lesbians and gay men are underserved in mental health, social service, and health care settings. More recent reports describe social support systems in university communities (D'Augelli, 1989a; Edelman, 1986) and rural settings (D'Augelli, Collins & Hart, 1987; D'Augelli & Hart, 1987), and the impact of the HIV epidemic on gay male communities (Martin, Dean, Garcia & Hall, 1989).
EMPOWERMENI AND Social Cognitive Carrier Theory SCCT (Krista M. Chronister, Ellen Hawley Mcwhirter, 2003):
Empowerment is defined as "the process by which people, organizations, or groups who is powerless or marginalized:
The career counseling needs of battered women vary across settings, over time, and with their individual experiences of domestic abuse, challenging counselors to accurately assess their needs and
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Sexual orientation, Homophobia, Hatred, Phobias, Gender studies, Homosexuality, LGBT culture, Lesbophobia, Lesbian, Anthony DAugelli, Heterosexism, LGBT community
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