Civil War History Notes
HISTORY 311 NOTES – SEPTEMBER 24th until OCTOBER 24th HIS 311 SEPT 24
-1861- Civil War begins


-Nov.-dec "TRENT" incident


-1862-64-"Alabama" depredations


-Oct.-St. Alban\'s rd.


-1865- Reciprocity Tr. denounced


-1866- Fenian Invasion


-sub themes


-public opinion & foreign policy


-xtrnl coincide w/ intrnl issues


-colonies and their costs


COMPARISON OF CAN AND US


-Can and US are parallel


-major events, trade are shared


-civil society devl\'p same way


-culture is same exc. QUE, Louisiana certain parts speak french


SLAVERY


-1820 on - immersed in issue of slavery. (afro-american) in Brit Col.


-"Mason-Dixon line" separates north: anti-slavery, south: legal


- 1833: abolit\'n of slavery in BR colonies and empire


-Can had slavery but abolished at same time as North US.


-Slavery is great int\'l cost.


-Slavery is an Int\'l issue that begins to greatly affect national issue


-U.S. can\'t agree on slavery


-North feared that south would take over and imply slavery


-this contreversy spilled onto Can


ABRAHAM LINCOLN NEW PREZ-1860


-Dec 1860 -61: 11 southern states leave union.


-N. goes to war vs. S to bring them back into the union


CANADA


- not involved in war


-S aka: Confederate States may become 3rd country in NA


- ratio of pop. US:Can = 11:1


-Can thinks good opportunity if 3rd country in NA: no more under to US


-most Cand\'n believe that slavery is evil. So most agree w/ N


- Cand\'s divided into N and S


-Eastern Canada gets many newspapers: divided b/w conservatives who agree with N and liberals siding w/ S


-Liberals (S ) are fighting for freedom to do whatever . -Conservatives say (S ) are barberic animals and north must triumph.


CANADA: inlists in war because:


1. belief in cause of anti-slavery


2. Boredom


3. Money - army is occupation


can pay someone to take your place


4. Kidnapping-Can\'s kidnapped force to join US army


-Canada is neutral, not favour one


SOUTH


-not sovereign states.


-south is not really separate yet, just rebellious.


-“key to winning is to have foreign intervention.”


-hoping that S would be recognized as coutnry and N should back down.


BRIT GOV\'T


-mixed feelings re US


-public opinion: indifferent or hate


TRENT


-2 confeder8 diplomats sent to BRIT on The TRENT steamship. Thru neutral ports.


-when ship sailed near Nrthn coast diplomats were arrested & set to jail.


-Ld. Palmerston - BR. - disruption of human rights, demands release of 2 diplomats


-Br mobilizes its best army taken to Nova Scotia ready to deploy into US


-lincoln releases 2 confederates.


-sending army to Can a reminider that colonies are expensive


-if americans were to attack, Br could only defend Halifax not Mon nor TO.


-empire costly, and ungr8ful, Can does not wnat to help Br defend themselves


CANADA\'S CONFEDERATION


2 PARTIES in gov\'t are = in power


-invites BR to join Can to confederation


-starts 1864 - spring 1866


-agree to form larger confederation.


-way for Br to retract their expenditure on Can. so they support confederation


-not popular in Nova Scotia


-Br ignored Nova Scotians


-Br brot down New Bruns anti confederation party.


-Br helped Can a lot for confdr8t\'n


RECIPROCITY TREATY


-Can raising tariffs on US


-oct. 1864 - Montreal Can\'s go St. Alban\'s , Vermont and robbed a bank


-Montrealers arrested and judge let the robbers go w/ the money


1.US mad, if another incident US army would march into Can


2. Mar. 17, 1867 - denounces Reciprocity Treaty.


-Hostility from US gov\'t


IRELAND


- part of Br.


-catholic vs. protestants


-1840\'s famine, migration to US , Can, Aus: Protestants bitter to Br.


-US and Can don\'t like immigration


-Ire assimil8 to Can political system


FENIAN INVASION


- protestants in US want revenge on Br but far away so no hard backlash.


-use Irish army veterans to attack Can to revenge on Br


-Can ships men to point of attack


-1866, June the Fenians invaded CAn from Buffalo,


-US gov\'t late awareness: cut-off Fenians and laid down arms


-costly for Can to ship men


-the Fenian danger pushes Can to form confederation.


-July 1st 1867 fedaration of ON QUE


not B.C. NS., NB


1. Public opinion influences national and international decisions


2. colonies and its costs


3. Can is a product of external influences. Can was pushed together because of US threat.


HIS 311 SEPT 26
Canada in 1867


-3.5 million population resided mainly in ON & QU


-4 provinces


-2 national parties


1. Conservatives


2.Liberals


-Macdonald 1867-73


-Mackenzie 1873-78


-Macdonald 1878-91


-Can: NS, NB, ON, QU


-30-31% spoke Fr. living in Qu


-QU had 80% french speaking


-60% p rotestant, 40% Catholics


-up to today, no prime minister have been anything else but Lib or Con


-Cabinet, Gov\'t: hard fought elections


Macdonald 1815-?: ON


-knighted by Queen Victoria


-saw that Can should accept Eng/Fr.


-conservative


-opposition


-opportunistic


-Liberal party


-colonial period therefore colonial position


-loyal to both