Chemistry



3) Rutherford's gold foil experiment consisted of a radioactive source that emits positively charged Alpha particles to a piece of gold foil. This was surrounded by a circular fluorescent screen which would detect where the Alpha particles were after they hit the gold foil. It found that most of the particles went through unchanged, some went partially deflected and less were greatly deflected. This proved that there is a positively charged nucleus.

4) Flame tests and emission spectroscopy work by taking in visible light and separating it into it's basic colors. It shows you which colors are remaining that the given substance is letting out.

5) The relationship between atomic theory, quantum numbers, and electron configuration is pretty much a working process. In order to know anything at all about an atom you must first have the atomic theory to work with so you can have a guideline for your ideas. From the modern atomic theory, they got the concept of quantum numbers, and once you get the quantum numbers you can then see the amount of energy levels that are in your electron configuration.

6) In order to separate the given mixture, you would first separate the blue and red beads by their color. Then you could put a magnet in to remove all the iron pellets. Once they are removed you can remove the aluminum pellets with a scoop. To remove the vegetable oil, you can soak it up because it is sitting on top of the mixture. Then you must evaporate it to make it dry. You can then put the mixture through a filter to get out the sand. Since the boiling point of alcohol is lower than that of water you can heat it to alcohol's boiling point, but not waters to remove the alcohol, once it stops boiling, you can increase the temperature to waters boiling point. After the water is evaporated the salt is all that is remaining.

7) First you must fill a graduated cylinder up with 50mL of water. Then place the metal in the water and record the new water lever. Then dry off the metal and weigh it. Find your percent error once you have your calculations and if it is close to 0% you know you are right.

8) The development of the atomic model started with Dalton's Atomic Theory which said all elements are composed of indestructible, indivisible atoms, all atoms of the same element are exactly alike, atoms of different elements are different, and compounds are formed by joining atoms of different elements. Thomson's model, the plum pudding model, said that electrons had a negative charge. Rutherford's atomic model discovered a positively charged nucleus. Niels Bohr thought that electrons traveled in definite orbits, the only was electrons lose energy in by dropping levels, in the ground stage electrons occupy lowest energy level available, atoms can absorb energy from outside sources, and atoms are unstable. The fifth model is the Electron Cloud Model. It states that electrons have a probably location outside of the nucleus called the electron cloud.

9) The ionization energy goes down from left to right, they will all lose 2 electrons, and the atomic radii gradually goes up.

10) The transition metals are all of the "d" sublevel. It is called this because the amount of electrons it loses varies with the atoms they are bonding with. They are all very reactive. The oxidation number for all of these will be +2.