Chapter 6 Vocabulary



Biology 7th period



o pho·to·syn·the·sis
The process in green plants and certain other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct.
o glu·cose
n. A monosaccharide sugar, C6H12O6, occurring widely in most plant and animal tissue. It is the principal circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source of the body.
3. au·to·troph


An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy Green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are autotrophs


4. het·er·o·troph ( P ) Pronunciation Key (h t r- -tr f , -tr f )
n.


An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition


5. pig·ment ( P ) Pronunciation Key (p g m nt)



o A substance used as coloring.
o Dry coloring matter, usually an insoluble powder, to be mixed with water, oil, or another base to produce paint and similar products.
chlo·ro·phyll also chlo·ro·phyl ( P ) Pronunciation Key (klôr -f l, kl r -)
n.


Any of a group of green pigments that are found in the chloroplasts of plants and in other photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, especially:


a. A waxy blue-black microcrystalline green-plant pigment, C55H72MgN4O5, with a characteristic blue-green alcohol


a·den·o·sine ( P ) Pronunciation Key ( -d n -s n )
n.


A nucleoside, C10H13N5O4, composed of adenine linked to ribose, that is a structural component of nucleic acids and the major molecular component of ADP, AMP, and ATP.


ATP ( P ) Pronunciation Key ( t p )
n.


An adenosine-derived nucleotide, C10H16N5O13P3, that contains high-energy phosphate bonds and is used to transport energy to cells for biochemical processes, including muscle contraction and enzymatic metabolism, through its hydrolysis to ADP. ATP is hydrolyzed to AMP when it is incorporated into DNA or RNA.


Light Reactions: reactions of photosynthesis that require light.


Dark Reactions: reactions of photosynthesis that do not require light but use energy produced and stored during light reactions to make glucose.


Photosynthetic membrane: chlorophyll-containing membrane in chloroplasts that serves as the site of light reactions.


Photosystem: cluster of pigment molecules within a photosynthetic membrane.


Electron transport: process in which HEB are transferred along series electron carrier molecules in a membrane.


Calvin cycle: name given to the cycle of black reactions during photosynthesis.


cal·o·rie ( P ) Pronunciation Key (k l -r )
n.



o Abbr. cal Any of several approximately equal units of heat, each measured as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C from a standard initial temperature, especially from 3.98°C, 14.5°C, or 19.5°C, at 1 atmosphere pressure. Also called gram calorie, small calorie. gly·col·y·sis ( P ) Pronunciation Key (gl -k l -s s)
n.

o An ATP-generating metabolic process that occurs in nearly all living cells in which glucose is converted in a series of steps to pyruvic acid.
res·pi·ra·tion ( P ) Pronunciation Key (r s p -r sh n)
n. The act or process of inhaling and exhaling; breathing. Also called ventilation.


aer·o·bic ( P ) Pronunciation Key (â-r b k)
adj. Biology.


Living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen: aerobic bacteria. Of or relating to aerobes.


Krebs cycle: continuing series of rules for proving that a specific type of microorganism causes a particular disease.


fer·men·ta·tion ( P ) Pronunciation Key (fűr m n-t sh n, -m n-)
n. The anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast.


an·aer·obe ( P ) Pronunciation Key ( n -r b , n-âr b )
n.


An organism, such as a bacterium, that can live in the absence of atmospheric oxygen.





Lactic acid fermentation: anaerobic process of glucose breakdown that produces lactic acid.


Alcoholic fermentation: fermentation that produces alcohol.